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13th Congress of the Philippines

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coat of arms of the Philippines.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the Philippines

The Thirteenth Congress of the Philippines (Filipino: Ikalabintatlong Kongreso ng Pilipinas) was the meeting of the national legislature of the Republic of the Philippines, composed of the Philippine Senate and House of Representatives. The convening of the 13th Congress follows the 2004 national elections, which replaced half of the Senate membership, and the entire membership of the House of Representatives.

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on December The 12th 1937 the U.S. Naval Gunboat USS Panay Was Sailing Up the Yangtze River The Panay Was a Flat-Bottomed Vessel Built in Shanghai specifically for operating on the Great River Which at over 3,000 miles long Was the longest in Asia and stretched deep into China Both Great Britain and The United States had Invested Heavily in China for Many Years Exploiting its Resources Including its Greatest of All, it's hard-working and cheaply employed People Indeed many Cities in China, like the capital of Nanking had foreign districts built along the same lines of suburbs in Washington or London However China was not a Unified country and had been in the grips of an ideological power struggle since 1927 fought between the government and the communist party of China Japan also occupied parts of the country but looked to exploit the civil war to gain even more Territory in Manchuria and so in 1931 Manufactured a terrorist attack against a Japanese railway line This was then used as a precursor for an invasion which saw China surrender Manchuria to Japan But skirmishes continued until in the summer of 1937, Japan finally launched a full-scale invasion Almost medieval acts of brutality carried out against the Chinese People by Japanese soldiers With looting rape and mass murder being not only Commonplace, but actually encouraged by the Japanese leadership in one shocking incident two Japanese officers held the competition to see who could decapitate 100 People with a Samurai sword The fastest and the incident was well publicized in Japan It's also been remembered as the rape of Nanking With all this happening in China both Britain and the US send their Navies up the Yangtze to protect their respective People's and Property but to remain a Neutral Force in the fighting on land By December 1937 The Japanese were encroaching on Nanking itself Where a large Number of Americans Lived and Worked and So the USS Panay Was instructed to begin evacuating them on December the 11th The Skies were abuzz with Japanese Warplanes and so The Americans Adorned a Vessel with large us flags to distinguish them from chinese Vessels Early The Next morning the British Gunboat HMS Ladybird Was Shelled By Japanese Forces on shore But Managed to escape serious damage Later The USS Panay found itself attracting Unwanted Attention From 12 Japanese Planes and Then Later a Japanese Gunboat despite the large American Flags The Japanese Planes Attacked The American Gunboat and three Nearby tankers with Bombs and machine-gun fire Over 50 Civilians and Crew on Board were wounded and Then Rescued by HMS Lady Bird and HMS Bee as the Panay Sank While three Americans Charles L. Esminger Carl H. Carlson and Edgar G. Hulsebus were Killed in the Attack Along with an Italian reporter They Would be the first Americans to die in battle between the forces of the Imperial Japanese and the United States of America Almost Exactly four Years Before The Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor The scope of Japanese Nationalism Was Realized at The Genre Fortress Where from 1936 a Japanese doctor Named Shirō Ishii Began a Series of gruesome Medical Experiments on Human Beings to develop biological and chemical Weapons for the Japanese Army He had Been inspired by research carried out in Europe and had convinced The Japanese emperor to sanctioned Japan's own Research Which he believed Would allow Japan to kill large Numbers of Enemy Forces quickly something The Japanese Needed Desperately if They had plans to face the numerically superior Chinese or Soviet Union When the Fortress Was attacked By resistant Fighters a Year Later he relocated his operation to Pingfang where the now notorious unit 731 was established There Thousands of Chinese Civilians and Later Allied POWs were used in his nightmarish medical Experiments to develop biological and Chemical Weapons as Well As Carry Out Experimental Surgeries Unit 731 also trialed is biological Weapons Against Chinese Populations Men Women Children animals and Even newborn infants were all used By Shirō Ishii's team to carry Out Their research Throughout The 1930s Japanese troops in Manchuria Fought a Series of One-Off Skirmishes with Chinese troops culminating in full-scale War erupting Again on July The 7th 1937 After Years Of Fighting One Another The two sides of the Chinese Civil war the Kuomintang and The Communists Called a ceasefire and United Against The Japanese who took the Kuomintang's capital City of Nanking in December 1937 The Brutality of Japanese Forces Against The Chinese Coupled with the attacks on the American Vessel USS Panay and US Delegates in Nanking Turned The United States Firmly against Japan But US President Franklin Roosevelt Believed that the US Was more Likely to get embroiled in war in europe Than the far East Thus While he authorized cash Payments to the Chinese to fund Their war efforts against the Japanese and Even Allowed American Pilots to fight for the Chinese air force as Part of The famous Flying Tigers unit He remained more focused on preparing to confront Hitler This Played Into Japan's Hands As They continued Their Expansion into China and Southeast Asia But and the continuing pressure from his Military Commanders Roosevelt did authorize Increasingly Tougher restrictions on trade with Japan in an effort to punish them for their actions in China Beginning in 1938 The Japanese Themselves also Viewed War with America as Unlikely and were more Concerned with another conflict Breaking Out with the Soviet Union North of Their Manchurian conquests But The American embargoes did hurt them and caused Alarm in the Japanese leadership nevertheless in September 1940 a Week before Japan Joined The Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy Japanese Troops Entered French Indochina Now Vietnam Escalating What the US and UK saw As a Growing Crisis in Asia at First The Japanese Only Used Indochina as a base for troops in the event of a War with the Soviet Union But When Hitler Invaded the Soviet Union in 1941 Japan Occupied The rest of the Country and would continue to do so Until 1945 After Japanese Troops Entered French Indochina the US Placed Their Toughest Sanctions Yet on Japan By embargoing Vital Scrap Metal Exports and Borrowing Japanese Ships from using the Panama Canal Tensions Between Both Sides rose Throughout 1941 Leading to a series of negotiations to bring about a Peaceful Solution Birds The Japanese Military especially The Navy Viewed war with the US as inevitable The Japanese had by That time Plans to invade British, Dutch and French possessions Deeper Into Southern Asia as Part of Its Plans Under its Greater East Asia Co-prosperity sphere concept Such as Brunei and The Dutch East Indies But This Expansion Would Leave them vulnerable to attack from the US based in the Philippines Should They decide to interfere Therefore They Began to draw Up plans for a decisive Attack on the US navy in an effort to destroy It before it could mobilize As Early As 1940 The Japanese Began theorizing Plans for an Attack on Hawaii and the Philippines By April 1941 The Japanese Began training for an Attack on the US naval base at Pearl Harbor in What they had dubbed operation Zet Which was the brainchild of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto The Pilots trained to attack ships in Pearl Harbor Using air Launch Torpedoes but The problem was that these Weapons tended to dive Deeper Than The shallow Waters of the Harbor allowed The Japanese came Up with a cunning Solution Wooden fins are Forced the torpedo to rise Up immediately after hitting the Water on November 26 1941 The japanese Fleet Set sail For hawaii and a Strict Radio Silence at The time both the US and Washington were still negotiating But Roosevelt's Government had by then Began Demanding Japan Withdrew From China Altogether something Totally Unthinkable to the Japanese leadership The Fleet comprised of six Aircraft Carriers With 359 fighters and Bombers Making It The Most powerful Naval Aviation Force in History at That time on December The 1st Yamamoto Was Informed that War with the Dutch, US, and UK, had Been authorized by the Japanese leadership But Should It Appear That Both Sides were about to reach an amicable solution prior to december the 7th Then He Should authorize to pull the Fleet back and Cancel The Attack Endowed with intelligent photographs of Pearl Harbor Taken By a Japanese Spy aboard a Sightseeing Aircraft Yamamoto made His final preparations on december the 6th and with no sign of a Peaceful Solution The This morning The Aircraft took off from Their Carriers The air Attack Was preceded By a Group of Japanese Midget Submarines That Attempted to sneak into the harbor But One of them Was attacked and Sunk by the destroyer USS Ward, Which fired The first American Shots of The Pacific theater of World War 2 This Should Have Alerted The Americans to an Attack but the information did Not Reach The US Admiralty in time Meanwhile an American Radar Station Spotted The Formation of Japanese Aircraft But Was told That It Was a Flight of B-17s arriving From Mainland USA and so no action was taken At Pearl Harbor The Sailors were waking Up and preparing for a routine Sunday with Naval Bands Playing Songs While the Skies Began to fill with Aircraft The Americans were Taken completely By surprise and the Bands were still playing as the first bombs and torpedoes Struck The ships During The Course of the Attack the Japanese Damaged or Sank eight American Battleships Three Cruisers Three Destroyers an Anti-Aircraft Training Ship and a Minelayer a Number of Nearby US Army Airfields were also hit in air raids The Aircraft base There had Been Bunched together on the ground to make It easier to guard them against possible sabotage But all This did Was Increased The damage caused by The bombs as They Landed Amongst them in All the US Lost 2403 service personnel in the Course of the Attack While over a Thousand more Was Seriously Wounded The damage could have Been Greater had Yamamoto Not decided to cancel a follow-up Attack Because They had lost The element of surprise The Japanese Lost 29 Aircraft and five Midget Submarines That Attempted to participate in the Attack All in all 64 Japanese were Killed While one Japanese Navy officer Kazuo Sakamaki Was captured alive After His submarine was Grounded Becoming The first Japanese Prisoner of War Taken by The Americans Crucially However and Almost Purely By Chance The US Navy's Aircraft Carriers were not present at the harbour and thus Survived Unscathed The Next day president Roosevelt met with the us congress to ask them to vote on declaring war on Japan The Vote Was almost Unanimously in favor of war Say For One objection By representative Jeannette Rankin of Montana She told congress as a Woman I cannot Go to war and I refuse to send anyone else In his speech Roosevelt Described december the 7th as a date Which Would live in Infamy Less Than Four Days After Pearl Harbor Was Attacked Adolf Hitler acting on His own Authority and Without Consulting his staff Ordered His government to declare war on the US in support of Japan and in respond to what he viewed as the USA violating its Neutrality By Supporting Britain For The United States Of America The Second World war had begun Admiral Yamamoto predicted That After The opening of Hostilities with the USA Japan Would Have six months with Which to decisively Defeat the US In the pacific to such an Extent that Washington Would have to sue for peace Which would effectively Surrender The Pacific and Asia to Tokyo Phew in Japan Truly Believes that an Invasion of The us Mainland Was a Possibility Given How over stretched Japan Was Already With Its war Which Was primarily aimed at British and Dutch Empire territories with the grand prize being Australia itself The Reason he gave six months Was Because that was how long he predicted it would take For The Mighty US Industrial complex to fully Gear Up for war After Which Japan Could Not hope to match American war production The Japanese Therefore Wasted Little time and Began Their own form of Blitzkrieg in the east Within 24 Hours of The Attack on Pearl Harbor Japanese Troops had Attacked British Forces in Malaya and Hong Kong and American Forces on the Philippines on December The 10th two British Battle Cruisers HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse Sailed to Attack The Japanese but Was sunk By Japanese Aircraft This Attack Finally Convinced The World's Navies That Aircraft Were now displacing surface Vessels as The most powerful Weapons of Naval warfare The Battle for the Philippines saw some of Japan's most Experienced soldiers Pitted Against The numerically Superior Bert's Mixed Bag of Defenders Who Varied from US regular Forces down to police officers and Volunteers The Japanese Quickly overrun them despite the Valiant defense But Pockets of stone American resistance Would continue in the Bataan peninsula Until May the Following Year by Which time these men had become Famously Known as the Battling Bastards of Bataan Ultimately Defeated The American and Filipino Fighters Then Found Themselves facing Horror of The Bataan Death March Which Saw Nearly 80,000 exhausted and Wounded men Marched 70 miles into Captivity if Any of them Became Too Weak to walk They were Bayoneted by Their captors and left to die Hong Kong fell on Christmas day 1941 Like in China the population found Themselves The subject of rape and Murder at The Hands of the Japanese especially Those of European Origin a Few Weeks Later The Japanese attacked the Solomon Islands Beginning One of The most Bitter Campaigns of The war Holding the Solomon Islands Allowed The Japanese to attack shipping Carrying Vital War Supplies from the US To Australia and New Zealand Australia Was Now Seriously Under Threat from Attack by the Japanese Which was Realized on March The 3rd 1942 When Japanese Planes Attacked British and Australian Planes a Broome in Western Australia on February the 8th 1942 Japanese troops Launched Their offensive against British Singapore Despite a Staunch defense the Garrison Was Forced to surrender a Little Over a Week later Like in Hong Kong the population Was subject to shocking Brutality Including One incident That Saw Doctors Nurses and Patients Of a Hospital Bayoneted a Month Later Saw The Start of The Burma campaign with the Japanese aim of securing the Major Seaport of Rangoon and close Land Supply Routes to the Chinese The Japanese were Joined in Their effort By Indian and Burmese Nationalist Armies Who wanted to remove the British from their countries an Army From Thailand also Supported The Japanese but It was Here where their Advance Would Finally start to bog down The dense Jungle and intense weather made fighting Here bitter Painful and Slow and Despite Their best efforts The Japanese Failed to break the allied Defence The Burma campaign Would continue Until the end of the war as the allies slowly Pushed the Japanese bank on April The 18th the US Carried Out a Daring Raid against The Japanese home Islands When a Force of US Army air force B-25 Mitchell Bombers were Launched from The Aircraft Carrier USS Hornet The Sixteen Bombers were led By Lieutenant Colonel James Jimmy Doolittle and split Up to attack targets in Tokyo, Nagoya, Kobe, and Osaka Before Flying on to China The Raid Achieved Very little in Terms of strategic importance but At a time When the Japanese seemed unstoppable in the pacific It sent us morale Soaring At Sea the US Navy Was rapidly mobilizing his forces to stop the Japanese Advancing Towards The west coast of America Resulting in an engagement Between American and Japanese Vessels at The Battle of Coral sea on may the 4th 1942 The Battle Saw Aircraft as the Main means of fighting and as Such Was the first Naval Battle in history Where the ships of both Sides Never Saw One Another The Americans took Significant Casualties including The loss of a Vital Aircraft Carrier The USS Lexington But Succeeded in momentarily Halting The Japanese advance and Perhaps Most Significantly damaging Two Japanese Carriers That were Forced to return home for repairs on June The 3rd a Small Japanese Force Invaded The Islands of Attu and Kiska in the Aleutians off the coast of Alaska With The Aim of providing a base to hamper allied shipping to the soviet union and China Due to the remoteness of the islands the extreme weather conditions and the events in the South Pacific It would be Over a Year before a Numerically superior American and Canadian Force Could Remove them in august 1943 Having Two Carriers Retreat From Combat After The Battle of the Coral sea Would prove especially significant When on June the 4th 1942 US And Japanese Naval Forces met Again in the battle of Midway Island Midway Island Was One of The last objectives before The Japanese could Invade Hawaii and As Such It Was Vital to both Sides Who Deployed the bulk of Their carrier Forces The Japanese had four Aircraft Carriers Rather Than the six they Should Have had Had it not Been for the damage Sustained in the earlier Battle The Americans on the other Hand only had three and the air Battles that followed saw some of The most intense air Combat in history The Americans Attacked The Japanese Carriers with Torpedo Bombers Which took the brunt of The Japanese defensive fire High above However American dive Bombers Virtually Stumbled Across The Japanese Carriers and made Their Attack almost Unopposed The Wooden Decks of The Carriers were covered with ammunition and Aviation Fuel So when The bombs detonated Their effect Was Greatly Increased The Japanese Would lose all four Carriers in The battle something They would never recover from While the Americans lost Just One the USS Yorktown The Japanese had Finally Been Halted and Now Began The slow island-hopping Campaign to push them back to Japan starting in August with an American offensive against The Island of Guadalcanal Yamamoto had Been proved Correct After Six Months of Victory The Japanese lost The initiative under Tide had well and truly Turned against them He would not see to live Japan's ultimate Defeat for he was Killed When his personal Transport Aircraft Was Shot Down by American Fighters on April the 18th 1943 Like Rommel His memory is as respected in allied countries as His own America's Entry into the war against Nazi Germany Began in Ernest with the first American troops arriving in Britain By the end of January Meanwhile Germany's U-boats were now permitted to extend their operations right Up to the American coastline in order to strike At Convoys as They Left port However Now the U-boat Commanders had to contend with The American Warships hunting them as Well as British and Canadian Warships Despite This the U-boats continued to inflict Painful Losses on the allies 1942 opened with Two significant events in the Course of Human History The first occurred on January The 1st when 26 nations Excluding Any of The Axis power Signed the United Nations Charter The UN was to replace the failed League of Nations and had a Greater degree of Authority. To intervene on the world stage in the future The Second occurred three Weeks Later But had a Much darker tone on January The 20th Key Nazi figures met at the Wannsee Conference Chaired By Reinhard Heydrich to discuss implementing the "Final Solution" Against Jews and Other Undesirables in Nazi controlled Lands This Helped establish The Policy for eradicating large Numbers of People Quickly using gas Heydrich would be killed before the Third Reich's Brutal ambitions came to full Fruition as he was assassinated in a British Orchestrated Attack By Czech Freedom Fighters five Months Later Mere Days Before The gassing at Auschwitz Began On the Eastern Front the Germans and the Axis allies prepared for a Fresh summer offensive against the Soviet Union Which Was Still recovering From The setbacks It had encountered in the opening Battles At Lenninggrad The German Army Was Laying siege to the city whose population stubbornly Refused to surrender in May The Germans Launched an ultimately Successful offensive into Crimea in the Ukraine and Then in June They Lay siege to Sevastopol Which held out Until July The 3rd the Germans Then pressed on to a City on the edge of the river volga whose name Would become Synonymous with a Brutal nature of the Eastern Front Stalingrad with the City Bearing the name of Their leader The Soviets Would fight Tooth and nail to keep the city from Falling into German Hands Not Only for strategic reasons But for symbolic Purposes as well Between late August 1942 and Early February 1943 Both Sides fought house-To-House For control of The Now Ruined City in November 1942 The Soviets Attacked The Romanian and Hungarian Units Supporting The German 6th Army fighting Inside the City trapping Them there and cutting them off from Supplies Attempts to Get Supplies to the Germans by air failed and by February The Germans had lost The battle that Missed another harsh Russian Winter Nearly Two Million soldiers and Civilians Would Be lost in the battle for the city in Western Europe British and Canadian Forces Plan to raid the French Port of Dieppe with the primary aim being to prove as an allied Assault on occupied France Was possible it Was also meant to reassure Stalin that the western allies Remained committed to opening Up another front to relieve His own forces Launched on August the 19th The raid Was a Near disaster with almost 60% of the force being Killed Captured or wounded While It failed to achieve its immediate objectives It did teach the allies valuable lessons about such large assaults That Would Be Applied in the future During the interwar years Aircraft Technology Advanced Considerably With Bomber Aircraft especially Becoming Larger Faster Able to fly higher and Carry a greater Bomb Load across the length of the European continent as war Broke Out even more powerful Four-Engine Bombers Such As The American B-17 flying Fortress and British Avro Lancaster were on the drawing board But The problem was that There was no truly accurate Way to drop Bombs onto a target from altitude dive bombing Could Put a Bomb onto a target the size of a Tank But This could Only Be Achieved by Smaller Aircraft Such as the Junkers Ju 87 stuka Which is why dive bombing Was primarily used to support the army or Attack ships By The late 1930s a Frightening New doctrine in air warfare Was considered By Air Force Leaders across the World But Called For the use of armadas of bombers to drop Huge numbers of Bombs Over a large area of Strategic significance These targets Would Often Center Around Industrial complexes Such as Factories or Refineries But Would also include the Homes of the Workers Who lived nearby and the infrastructure to support those People Their shops Churches or anything to do with everyday life Finally The Death Toll Such acts Would create Was Seen as being enough to drive the survivors Mad with Fear Leading to a Breakdown of social order and with the country no longer Able to function It Would Be Forced to surrender This doctrine Was Known by Many Terms Carpet Bombing Aerial Denial Strategic Bombing But The truth Was It Was little more Than a Government-Sanctioned active Military Terrorism Hitler and The Nazi leadership especially Believed in such tactics reflecting Their Views of The inferior Peoples outside of Germany The Nazis gave The World a taste of the power of Such operations during The spanish Civil war and Then Again During The Invasion of Poland in Both Instances The Germans were ultimately Victorious But This had more to do with the events on the ground with the German Army It would not be until the battle of Britain That the concept Was truly Put into practice with German Bombers attacking British Cities Such as London, Coventry, Liverpool, Cardiff, and Even Belfast in Northern Ireland Known as the Blitz from September 1940 Until May 1941 German Bombers Launched a Massive offensive Against British Cities in the hope that It Would Crush britain's resolve to continue the war in The Early Days of The Blitz the British Leadership Feared That The Germans were achieving Their Aims as large Numbers of People Began fleeing the cities Which acted as makeshift Shelters something The Government tried to avoid However as Other cities were attacked the population Who left Began returning Except For The Children Who were evacuated for the Duration of The war The Feared Collapse of Social order Failed to materialize and with Germany preparing The invasion of The Soviet Union in 1941 The Luftwaffe withdrew Much of its bomber force to support the Eastern and African Campaigns However Over 45,000 People Perished in the Blitz and Rather Than achieve Victory for The Germans is Instead Hardened British resolve Which now Called for revenge for Those lost To some observers the failure of the Blitz Demonstrated The inadequacies of trying to terror bomb populations into Submission Some engineers in Britain Like the gifted Barnes Wallis Believed he had a solution to the problem of Accuracy with a proposal to create Very Heavy Bombs carried By super Heavy Bombers The Very Heavy Bombs Didn't Stray from Their Arm Point like the lighter Bombs often did Making It Easier to predict where they would land and Thus Increased Accuracy Later in the war wallace's proposals Would Be proven Correct with British Bombers Being Able to strike Targets Such as Narrow Viaducts and Ships from altitude Wallis and Supporters Wanted to build a Fleet of these super Heavy bombers to target Germany's Factories and Shipyards Thus Denying The Germans the ability to build the Very tools for war But he was met with open Hostility from some of The RAF Leadership Many of Whom Incredibly Still Saw The value of area Bombing One Man in particular Believed in its ability Namely air Marshal sir Arthur Harris Who took over the RAF bomber Command in 1941 Supported By Churchill Harris Called For The RAF to start area bombing Key German Cities in effort To bring Germany to its Knees with operations Beginning in 1942 Now supported by The us army air Forces The Soviet Union Also Attacks German Cities including Berlin But This Was not in conjunction with the western allies and Was often in retaliation or for propaganda purposes Harris Used the Blitz as Justification for His campaign as he put it "The Nazis entered the war under the Rather Childish Delusion That They were going to bomb everyone else and Nobody Was going to bomb them They Showed the Wind and Now They're going to reap the Whirlwind" Harris Learned The Wrong lessons from the Blitz Firstly he Believed that a Population Living Under a Totalitarian Regime Such As nazi Germany Would Break Under a Sustained bombing Campaign since The urge to be free would Go stronger as Resentment Towards The Nazis Group Secondly he Believes that the German Luftwaffe lacked The bomber Force Necessary for such a Campaign to be successful Since It Was primarily organized in Support of The German Army Rather Than strategic operations as The RAF Increasingly Was Harris and Supporters were initially disappointed with The Early Results citing Continuing Issues With Navigation Which Was especially a Problem for The RAF Who flew their operations at night to protect them from Germany's day fighter Forces This Would Be Addressed Over time with the use of Navigational Beacons and Later Radar Sets on Board The Aircraft The US aircrew Who flew Bomber With better Protection Than Their RAF counterparts Flew in Daylight Which Greatly Improved Navigational Accuracy But The bombers were Harassed by Enemy fighters Almost The Whole Way to the target and back again leading to heavy Losses So Heavy were the Losses in the Early Days That's at One point the US Considered Abandoning Daylight operations and Joining The RAF at Night with a Handful of US Bombers Flying Night Missions with The RAF for trial Purposes Harris Believed the Solution Was to simply increase the Number of aircrafts in the air to increase the devastation Below and cooperative Protection for The Aircraft This Led to operation Millennium a Bold Plan Like Called for Over a Thousand RAF Bombers Nearly Every available Aircraft in bomber command Including training Aircraft to take to the skies against a single City Namely Cologne on May The 30th the city Was Subjected to the most concentrated single air Attack in history Up to that Point Over the Next two and a Half Years allied Bombers Smashed German Cities in the belief It Would Defeat Germany but As had Been proven in the Blitz against London It's only Hardened The German People's resolve and tied Up much of the allied Resources It Was not entirely a Failure however since It did Indeed destroy much of Germany's Industrial complex Forcing them to relocate factories into Mountains or Hidden in the countryside but It did fail to achieve the victory Harris Promised for Much Of The war the allied bomber Crews were Seen as heroes Since for a time They were the only force taking the war directly to Nazi Germany As the end of the war came in sight However and pictures of What allied bombing had done to Germany was Seen Around the World The Populations of Britain and the us began to Turn against Harris and the bomber Crews However Harris Would Remain Unapologetic For The rest of His life Hitler's Decision to invade the Soviet Union and then declare war on the United States Was made While Rommel's Afrika Corps Was still fighting the British eighth Army in Africa a Force Which Would Forever be Known as the Desert Rats British and Commonwealth Forces Have begun Receiving large Numbers of more Advanced American-made tanks Such as the M3 Grant an M4 Sherman Which greatly Helped Redress The balance With Germany's tank Forces with the US Now fully Engaged against Nazi Germany Rommel Knew that time was no longer a Luxury he could afford He had to achieve Victory against the British Forces and secure North Africa quickly before the Americans could Land Their troops in force All the while he faced a never-ending problem With Supplies as Hitler focuses Attention on the Soviet Union Rommel Began 1942 with a fresh offensive and Surly Began to push the British back across Egypt His Genius As a Leader Was Emphasized by His ability to achieve a Lot with Very little but a shortage of Fuel was Forever headache for Him and Repeatedly Slowed His Advance Eastward on August 13th The Desert Rats received New commander His name Was Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery and Like Rommel he had a personality to match His tactical Skill Known affectionately As Monte to his men and the public he wore a Unique two badge berret Drove Around and a Specially Modified M3 tank and camped a picture of Rommel in His office to remind Him of his enemy Whenever he made his plans a Tradition Maintained By American and British Tank Units to this Very day By August the 31st 1942 the British Forces were boxed in Around El Alamein Where Rommel means What he believed to be his Final push to the Nile However Well-Prepared British Defenses Saw The Attack Fail and so Rommel attempted to out flank them to the South Which Only Saw His Forces Run Out of Fuel and fall back Finally on October The 23rd Monte Launched his great counter-offensive from El Alamein It Began with an incredible 900 artillery gun barrage That Saturated The Germans for Days Before Monte's tanks Pushed Forward After a Series of Bitter Battles and with The Help of a Reinvigorated RAF Supported By New American Aircraft Dominating The Skies above the Desert Rommel Began His long Retreat Back with Monte in pursuit as Monte chased Rommel Back Into Libya Worse news for the German General Was to come on November the 8th 1942 When a Huge Force of American and British troops Supported By Pro allied Vichy French troops Landed in Morocco and Algeria to the West of Libya Dubbed "Operation Torch" The Landings were the first Major American-British Joint Operation and Was Under The Command of US General Dwight D. Eisenhower Thus the Further West Rommel Retreated from Monty's Enemy the closer he got to Eisenhower's Army That Was Advancing Towards Him Over the coming Year Rommel Would continue to fight an increasingly Hopeless Battle Having to contend With immense allied Forces on two fronts All the While suffering Chronic Supply Shortages and Having to contend With Hitler Who was increasingly Uninterested with Africa Even When Hitler Released Supplies for Rommel They were increasingly being intercepted By American and British Naval Forces That were swarming the Mediterranean Throughout April 1943 It was Clear The Campaign in Africa Was lost and not wanting to lose One of The Third Reich's most esteemed Generals Hitler Ordered Rommel Back To Germany as The Afrika Korps Finally Collapsed in May 1943 Defeat in north Africa Left The south of Nazi-Occupied europe and Their Ally Italy Exposed to allied bombers and Ships as Well as Increasingly Denying Them the use of the Mediterranean Rommel Himself Would Later commit suicide after Being implicated in a Plot to kill Hitler There was Now debate among the allies as what to do next The Soviet Union had Been demanding the Western Allies open up a Second front in Europe since america entered the war The Americans Agreed and Wanted to strike France as soon as possible Birth Churchill on the other hand Believed that Italy Would be the best setting for opening Up a new front in Europe Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini Was Increasingly Losing His grip on power and Churchill Believed that if Italy Was Invaded his government Would Fall and so Would any organized resistance for This reason he labeled Italy Europe's Soft Underbelly and at The Casablanca Conference He managed to convince Roosevelt To agree to support an Attack Dubbed "Operation Husky" on July the 9th 1943 American and British Paratroopers and Amphibious Assault Forces Landed on The South side of Sicily and Began Pushing North Prior to the invasion the British carried Out a Successful disinformation operation Involving the use of a Dead man's body Dressed in a Royal Marines officer's Uniform and Released It By submarine Near Spain With Plans for an allied Invasion of Greece The Germans Recovered The Body and Believed the plans to be genuine and so focus their defensive efforts on Greece and not on Sicily in Less Than a Month The entire Island Was Under allied Control Which Allowed it to act As a Springboard for the allied Invasion of Mainland Italy Which Began on September the 3rd Allied Forces first Landed At Taranto on the Heel of Italy followed By Landings At Calabria and Salerno a Week Later as Churchill predicted It Said he Was quickly destabilizing to the point where Mussolini was Removed from power on July The 24th 1943 The New Italian Government Began Secretly negotiating an armistice With the allies before allied troops Even Landed in Italy It was announced publicly on September the 8th and Additional allied Landings were made Unopposed But The Germans had caught on to what Was happening and Moved in to take Over key defensive positions and disarmed a Now potentially hostile Italian Army This Led to opening fighting Between the former Allies and on September the 9th the Italian battleship "Roma" Was sunk by German Aircraft in What Was the first Attack in History carried Out using air Launched anti-ship Missiles on the Greek Islands of Cephalonia Italian Forces Battled German Troops for Over a Week and a Half before being Defeated and Thousands of Italian Prisoners were then Massacred by The Germans on September The 12Th 1943 Mussolini Was Rescued from prison in a daring Raid By German Special Forces and Flown to Northern Italy Which Was Under German Control Italy Was Now a de facto state of Civil war with The pro allied south Battling the pro-nazi north! Which had Been re-branded as the "Italian Social Republic" Any Hopes of Sweeping Through Italy By Christmas 1943 Was Soon Dashed However as The Germans and Their Remaining Italian Allies organized a Tough Defense Along The Winter line a Series of three defensive Lines countered Around protecting The strategically important Monastery of Monte Cassino The Allies Would continue Advancing North Through to the end of 1943 but It Was a Slow and Painful process as The Western Allies Slog Through Italy The Soviets continued Their fight to repel the Germans who are still advancing Through The Soviet Union on July The 5th 1943 the Germans Launched Operation Citadel Sparking The Battle of Kursk This Battle Saw Such an immense use of tank Forces by Both Sides That It Remained the largest single tank Battle in history Having Realized The Battle Would take Place at the Kursk Salient the Soviets had ample time to prepare Their Defenses and For The first time in the war a German strategic Advance Failed The re-Energized and reorganized Soviet Forces had By Now Learned from Their Early Mistakes and were taking the initiative Against the German Invaders Having Lost Their Momentum on the eastern front and with allied troops pushing Through Italy The noose Was tightened Around Nazi Germany in The Pacific the situation for Japan Was no better as They continued Their own Retreat back to their home Islands Which were Themselves not a subject of air raids by The new B-29 Super-fortress Strategic Bombers Flying From India and China in January 1944 Soviet Forces Finally Lifted The siege of Leningrad The City had Held Out for two Years and Nearly five months and had even continued Undertaking Limited tank production but at The cost of an estimated Half a Million Dead The immense Soviet Army Now Began Steamrolling Their Way west pushing the Germans and Their Axis Allies further back on March The 26th Soviet troops Pursued the Germans into Romania and Over a Month Later Retook the Crimea in Italy The Battle for The German-held Territory Around The Monastery of Monte Cassino Began Between January and May the Allies Launched four Major Offensives Against The Germans there Which was key to their defensive lines protecting Pro Axis Northern Italy But Dogged German resistance Repelled Them Until Finally on May The 18th 1944 The Allies Broke Through Along a 20-mile line The Victory cost the Allies Fifty five Thousand men and Was met with a Great deal of criticism When the ancient Monastery itself Was Bombed by Allied Warplanes at The same time the allies were fighting at Monte Cassino Another Allied Force Landed At Anzio in an Attempt to outflank the main German defensive lines it Was Under The Command of us Army Major General John Lucas and Despite landing and establishing a Beachhead the allies found themselves Contained there until May by Which time Lucas had Been Relieved of his command with the Victory of Cassino and the Breakout from Anzio the allies Pushed Towards Rome with the first US Army Units arriving at The City on June 4th in The far east The Japanese Launched a Major offensive to push British empire Forces out of Burma and into India Despite some Early Gains and The charismatically brutal nature of jungle warfare the Japanese were halted and then Pushed back It would prove one of The last Major offensives that The japanese could Muster In the Pacific the island hopping Campaigns continued with Many Japanese Garrison's Now being Starved of Supplies Thanks to an increasingly effective US Navy submarine blockade of The Japanese home Islands Nevertheless The Fanatical Japanese made the Allies pay for Every inch of Ground Stalin had Been calling for the opening of a Western front in Europe since the Americans Joined the war in order to ease pressure on His forces The paranoid dictator Even Confided in some of his aides That he Believed the west were deliberately delaying opening a front in order to Wear down the Soviet Forces By 1944 the Western Allies were Finally preparing to storm Fortress Europe Which WouLd Force The Now outnumbered Germans and Their Axis Supporters to commit resources to three battle fronts Just Like Hitler When he planned to invade Britain The Allies Knew That Any crossing of The English Channel had to be made in the summer months Because the weather Afterwards Would prove too Hazardous Britain therefore Became The History's Biggest staging post in the first Half of 1944 It seemed as though Every available piece of Land Was Being Turned into an Airfield for Aircraft or parking Lots for tanks and Trucks Knowing That German Aircraft were Still carrying Out reconnaissance Over the UK The Allies Devised ingenious Ways of confusing The Germans intelligence Pictures Such As inflatable tanks and Wooden airplanes That Looked Real enough on reconnaissance Photos Taken at High altitude Finally By June 1944 the Allies were ready to launch an Invasion Dubbed Operation Overlord It Was Under The Command of The supreme allied commander General Dwight D. Eisenhower and It Was decided to Land troops At Normandy Rather Than the more obvious choice of Calley Which Was a Shorter Journey Between the UK and France The RAF and US AAF had Spent Months softening Up Defenses Along The Germans so-Called Atlantic Wall While French resistance Gathered intelligence on German Forces in the area as Well as Conducting Sabotage of Transport Links on June The 6th D-Day Began with an immense airborne Invasion of Normandy by allied paratroopers They were parachuted in behind the lines in an effort i flanked the main German Defenders Along The coast In the Early Hours of the morning the main Amphibious Force Landed at five Beaches each Given Their own codename? American Beaches were Utah and Mmaha British Beaches were Gold and Sword and The Canadian Beach Was Juno despite intense fighting and Heavy Casualties the Allies had secured the Beachhead and opened The Western front The previous Experiences at (???) Salerno Anzio and The Pacific had taught the allies wow how to best Conduct Amphibious Operations culminating in this, the invasion of Nazi occupied Europe Three Whole fronts the Allies were now pushing the Germans back to the Fatherland Despite the numerical Advantage the allies Enjoyed The Germans were still Able to demonstrate their extraordinarily Technological Prowess a Week after D-Day The 1st V1 flying Bombs Began to rain down on London While They lacked The Accuracy to greatly Affect the outcome of the war they did terrorize the south East of England and distracted The Allies by having them focus on bombing Their Launch Sites This WouLd Be Reinforced Later with The introduction of The V2 Which became the blueprint for Today's Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles Germany had also Introduced the first operational Jet Fighter The ME-262 These wonder Weapons had an Unexpected Advantage for the allies However Hitler Had Such Great Faith in Germany's Missiles Rocket Fighters and super tanks That he diverted Much-needed Resources Into their development Rather Than allocating Those Resources to more conventional But proven Weapons The Immaturity of The technology meant That They Weren't Able to deliver The results Hitler Fantasized about and so their continued development only Hampered Germany's war effort By Tying Up increasingly Limited Resources Knowing This a Secret Plot to kill Hitler with a Bomb was devised By some of his generals But The Plot failed and the conspirators were executed in July The Russians Reached Poland While in august the western Allies had liberated Paris The Germans were now in full retreat as the allies Carefully But Steadily Advanced east But field Marshal Montgomery Devised a Daring Plan To speed up the Defeat of Germany Involving the use of paratroopers to capture a Series of Bridges across the Rhine and Mass Rivers in the Netherlands and Germany Ground Forces were then Raced Towards the Bridges to secure them and allow allied troops to flood into Germany itself It Was a Risky Plan Leaving One British General to Famously Say "I think we May be going a bridge too far" However Monte Had Managed to convince Eisenhower and the operation Began on September the 17th Codenamed "Market Garden" The operation Was walked with problems resistance Was far Higher Than Expected and not all the Bridges were captured German Forces Encircled the paratroopers and over a Week Later the remaining allied Elements Either had to fight Their Way back to allied Lines or surrender After Market Garden The Allies returned to their slow But Steady progress Through Western Europe But The Germans were not Finished yet as the year drew to a close the Germans Launched a Last-ditch effort To break the allied Lines in Europe with the stunning offensive Through The Ardennes forest in december Now Remembered as The "Battle of the Bulge" It aimed to cut the allied Armies in two and Relied Heavily on Capturing allied Fuel stocks to power the 1,200 German tanks Involved in the Attack The offensive caught The allies completely off Guards Who found Themselves without The help of air support due to the poor weather However Fierce Pockets of allied resistance Slowed The German offensive Which lost Cohesin and more Crucially he failed to capture the fuel stocks in January 1945 The weather Improved allowing the Allies to launch powerful air strikes Which caused the Germans to begin retreating back to their main defensive Lines Although Victorious For The us army It Was the bloodiest battle of the war in europe In the pacific at The Battle of Leyte Gulf on October the 25th Allied Forces had discovered a New Terror Unleashed upon them the Kamikaze These were planes Flown deliberately into ships making Them essentially Manned Missiles and some Japanese Admirals Believed They were now the only Way to Turn the tide against the allied Navies Incredibly Such Was the belief in the righteousness of Such Suicidal acts There Was no shortage of Volunteers Later The Kamikaze doctrine Would include Ramming allied Bombers and Even Specially developed Rocket-Powered Aircraft After The Battle of The bulge It was Clear to most People That Nazi Germany Was all but Finished and All That Remained Was to mop up the last remnants of resistance in March 1945 allied troops Began crossing the Rhine and Not long After a V1 flying Bomb became the last bomb to fall on british soil in the war for Germany However The air raids Only Intensified with Dresden Being Held by Over 1300 American and British Bombers Over a Two day Period in February in april the last German resistance in the ruhr is Suppressed Leading to a staggering three Hundred and Seventy Thousand German soldiers being Taken Prisoner On the eastern Front Russian troops Swept Through Poland and Into East Germany and Austria Taking Vienna on April The 13th During Their Advance Thousands of Germans in Poland Became trapped and tried to flee by sea aboard the william Gustav ocean Liner The Ship Was Torpedoed By a Soviet submarine Killing Nearly 10,000 German soldiers and Civilians Making It The single Worst maritime disaster in history as Its Ally Was Increasingly Under Allied Control Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini and His Mistress were Killed By communist fighters in Northern Italy on April The 28th by Which time hitler and his own Mistress Eva Braun Had Retreated to his own Bunker in Berlin Where he planned to stay Until the end Whilst there he Generally Retreated into his own Mind to a World where the wonder Weapons he believed in so much Had Saved his Reich The Soviets had Reached The Outskirts of Berlin on April The 16th 1945 Thus beginning the Final Chapter of nazi Germany's History For Over two Weeks The Soviet Army Bombarded and Fought Their Way Through The rubble of What Was left in Berlin in scenes not Too dissimilar to the ones at Stalingrad almost three Years Earlier Every available Citizen Was pressed into The City's defense with Boys as Young as 12 being Given Uniforms from Dead German Soldiers so they Could Carry on the fight One Unusual unit defending The City composed a Group of Waffen-ss men with Lion insignia They were british Pows Who had volunteered to switch Sides After That Genetic Purity had Been Confirmed The Soviet Armies Battle for the City became Hampered By a decreasing Level of discipline amongst it's ranks who took the drinking Looting murder and Mass rape in Hitler's Bunker Fear and Insanity Reigned Over the last of The German Leadership Finally Hitler Himself Could Take no more and on April The 30th 1945 He and his Mistress Eva Braun took Their own Lives he had left instructions for His guards to cremate his body since he had seen the Way Mussolini's body had Been treated and He did not want the same with The Führer Dead Berlin Surrendered on may the 2nd but The mass rape and Looting of the Population Continued With Girls as Young as eight Being Gang-raped It Was not Uncommon for Soviet officers to go around the city in cars Hunting unfortunate Women Who were forced out of Their destroyed Homes to look for Food Now with the capital City Gone Their leader Dead and The complete collapse of the country The Remaining German Military Units Flocked to the Allies to surrender on May the 8th the last of The German Army Surrendered and V-E Day Victory in Europe Was declared in The Pacific However the fight continued and Grew more Bloodthirsty as The Japanese Became more desperate in February The Battle of Iwo Jima Began with an intense three-day Naval barrage of Japanese Positions in The Ensuing Battle The americans Would lose Nearly 7,000 men While the japanese Would lose 90% of over 20,000 men stationed on the islands on April The 1st 1945 the Americans Began an effort to clear The Ryukyu Islands Which counted Around the Main Island of Okinawa It was to be the last of the island hopping Campaigns before the allies hit Japan Themselves in Three Months of fighting The Americans Would lose another 20,000 and as the Japanese fought to the bitter end With Even a commander committing suicide Rather Than Surrender Many Military Planners Looked At These Figures and Began to realize that an Invasion of The Japanese home Island Was going to be extraordinarily Costly in Terms of Lives and The fighting Would Probably Go on for at least Two more Years Something Had to be done to end the war quickly for Several Years Before The war there had Been a Number of Theories Put Forward About how to harness the Energy of the atom into a source of power and as a Weapon Winston Churchill Was especially Interested in Such Research During The 1930s and even published Papers on its Military application Some preliminary Work had begun in Britain the US Germany and Japan But When the war Began Britain propped his research efforts to concentrate on defending the country After Pearl Harbor However The Americans Began Their own Projects before collaborating With British and Canadian Researchers to develop What was soon Dubbed the atom bomb the most powerful weapon in History Under The Banner of the Manhattan project The scientists Labored Through 1942 To 1945 Developing The World's first atom Bomb At New Mexico's Alamogordo range on July The 16th 1945 The first Successful atom Bomb test Was Conducted Thus confirming The Allies Now had a Weapon of Unspeakable Power After Confirming That The Weapon Could Be carried to a target in Japan By a B-29 Superfortress Bomber president Truman Who had replaced Roosevelt After His Death on April the 12th Authorized its use Against The Japanese City of Hiroshima on August The 6th 1945 the city Was decimated By an atom Bomb Dropped by The B-29 super-fortress Enola Gay The Bomb codenamed "Little Boy" had an Explosive Yield Equivalent to 15,000 tons of TNT and Killed Over a Hundred Thousand People Truman Demanded an immediate Japanese Surrender or promise there Will be more atom bomb attacks in what he described as a Rain of Ruin With no surrender Forthcoming Truman ordered Another Attack This time on the City of Kokua But It was obscured By Clouds and a Smokescreen so the Crew of the B-29 boxcar flew to their secondary target Nagasaki at 1102 Hours the Bomb detonated with a Yield Of 21,000 Tons of TNT Killing Over 80,000 more People on August the 15th The Japanese Emperor Announced that the country Was to surrender to the allies with the formal signing of the surrender Taking Place on September The 2nd Now remembered as V-J Day The end of World war two We Will never Know Exactly how many died in the second World War most estimates for the toll are They staggering 60 million People 3% of the World's population in 1940 After The War the Extent of Nazi and Japanese war Crimes became Public Leading to a series of trials for war Crimes However not all of Those responsible were brought to justice Josef Mengele a Nazi doctor Who performed Experiments on twins at Concentration Camps Escaped to south America where he died in 1979 in The East Japanese Dr. Shirō Ishii traded The Research unit 731 had carried out For pardons with The US government Who feared It might Fall into the Hands of the Soviets if they did not no other war in history has so dramatically Changed Not Just the political World But The everyday World The Technologies developed During The war such as Jet Engines Rocketry and Newer communications Equipment Have all Been integrated into our everyday Lives The V2 Rockets Fired At London By Germany Paved The way for the first Space Rocket Which Launched Satellites into space Allowing us not Only to communicate more effectively across the Globe but Keep a close Eye on our planet The Advancement of Aircraft Technology Particularly The Jet engine made Will travel accessible to all and Not Just the privileged few Even The Evil Experimentation Carried Out By The Nazis and Japanese has Increased our medical Understanding of The Human Body But When all is said and done the end of World War two did not see peace in our time The Victorious Allies Quickly Turned on One another Believing the Next war would see Washington and London Pitted against Moscow Germany Was Divided Between East and West and this became The setting for the cold war a Period of History Where the legacy of World War two Actually Threatened to annihilate mankind once and for all English Subtitles Made By: Doge102 1



Charter Change

President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, in her several State of the Nation Addresses has repeatedly called on Congress to pave the way for the amending of the 1987 Constitution[1] to provide for a unicameralparliamentaryfederal form of government. On December 8, 2006, the administration-dominated House of Representatives, bypassing the Senate, passed in haste House Resolution 1450, which called on Congress to convene into a Constituent Assembly (ConAss) to propose amendments to the Constitution.[2] The House move however, was faced with stiff opposition from the outmaneuvered members of the opposition and all but 1 member of the Senate,[3] which was later bolstered by support from several sectors of the civil society and the influential Roman Catholic Church,[4] which threatened to hold nationwide protest rallies to denounce the House move.[5] Succumbing to the mounting opposition and the apparent withdrawal of support of the President,[6] House Speaker Jose De Venecia later on scrapped the entire resolution and called instead for a constitutional convention, challenging the Senate to concur it in 72 hours.[7] But this too was rejected by the Senate,[8] which preferred to hold a constitutional convention after the 2007 elections.[9] Efforts to amend the constitution during the 13th Congress were eventually shelved.[10]


  • First Regular Session: July 26, 2004–June 7, 2005
    • First Special Session: January 5–February 10, 2005
    • Second Special Session: March 1–April 1, 2005
  • Second Regular Session: July 25, 2005–June 5, 2006
  • Third Regular Session: July 24, 2006–June 8, 2007
    • Third Special Session: February 19–February 20, 2007
    • Special Centennial Session: June 7, 2007


Laws passed by the 13th Congress: 149 (Republic Act No. 9333 to 9495), as of September 7, 2007[11]

Major legislation



  • President of the Senate
Franklin M. Drilon (Liberal)
Manuel Villar (Nacionalista), elected on July 24, 2006
  • Senate President Pro-Tempore
Juan M. Flavier (Lakas-CMD)
  • Majority Floor Leader
Francis N. Pangilinan (Liberal)
  • Minority Floor Leader
Aquilino Pimentel, Jr. (PDP-Laban)

House of Representatives

  • Speaker of the House of Representatives
Jose C. de Venecia, Jr. (Lakas-CMD, 4th District Pangasinan)
  • Deputy Speakers
Emilio R. Espinosa (NPC, 2nd District Masbate)
Raul V. del Mar (Lakas-CMD, 1st District Cebu City)
Abdulgani A. Salapuddin (Lakas-CMD, Lone District Basilan)
Central Luzon:
Benigno S. Aquino III (Liberal, 2nd District Tarlac)
Eric D. Singson (Liberal, 2nd District Ilocos Sur), elected February 21, 2006.[12]
  • Majority Floor Leader
Prospero C. Nograles (Lakas-CMD, 1st District Davao City)
  • Minority Floor Leader
Francis Joseph G. Escudero (NPC, 1st District Sorsogon)



Final Senate composition.
Final Senate composition.
Final House of Representatives composition.
Final House of Representatives composition.
Party Senate House of
KAMPI 0 30
KBL 0 1
LDP 2 6
Lakas 6 80
Liberal 4 34
Nacionalista 2 14
NPC 0 38
PDP-Laban 2 1
PDSP 0 2
Reporma-LM 0 1
PMP 4 2
PRP 1 0
Independent 2 0
Sectoral representatives NA 24
Vacancies 1 3
Total 24 236


Senator Party Term Term Start Term End Bloc
  1.Edgardo J. Angara LDP 1 2001 2007 Minority
  2.Joker P. Arroyo Independent 1 2001 2007 Majority
  3.Rodolfo G. Biazon Liberal 2 2004 2010 Majority
  4.Pilar Juliana S. Cayetano Lakas-CMD 1 2004 2010 Majority
  5.Miriam Defensor Santiago PRP 1 2004 2010 Minority
  6.Franklin M. Drilon Liberal 2 2001 2007 Majority
  7.Luisa P. Ejercito Estrada PMP 1 2001 2007 Minority
  8.Jinggoy Ejercito Estrada PMP 1 2004 2010 Minority
  9.Juan Ponce Enrile PMP 1 2004 2010 Minority
  10.Juan M. Flavier Lakas-CMD 2 2001 2007 Majority
  11.Richard J. Gordon Lakas-CMD 1 2004 2010 Majority
  12.Panfilo M. Lacson Independent 1 2001 2007 Minority
  13.Manuel M. Lapid Lakas-CMD 1 2004 2010 Majority
  14.Alfredo S. Lim PMP 1 2004 2007 Minority
  15.Jamby A. S. Madrigal LDP 1 2004 2010 Minority
  16.Ramon B. Magsaysay, Jr. Lakas-CMD 2 2001 2007 Majority
  17.Sergio R. Osmeña III PDP-Laban 2 2001 2007 Minority
  18.Francis N. Pangilinan Liberal 1 2001 2007 Majority
  19.Aquilino Q. Pimentel, Jr. PDP-Laban 2 2004 2010 Majority
  20.Ralph G. Recto Nacionalista 1 2001 2007 Majority
  21.Ramon B. Revilla, Jr. Lakas-CMD 1 2004 2010 Majority
  22.Manuel A. Roxas II Liberal 1 2004 2010 Majority
  23.Manuel B. Villar, Jr. Nacionalista 1 2001 2007 Majority

House of Representatives

The term of office of the current members of the House of Representatives is from June 30, 2004 to June 30, 2007.

District representatives

Thirteenth Congress representation map of the Philippines
Thirteenth Congress representation map of the Philippines
Province/City District Representative Party Term First Elected Bloc
Abra Lone Luis P. Bersamin, Jr.[n 1] KAMPI 2 2001 Majority
Agusan del Norte 1st Leovigildo B. Banaag Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
2nd Ma. Angelica Rosedell M. Amante Lakas-CMD 1 2004 Majority
Agusan del Sur Lone Rodolfo G. Plaza NPC 2 2001 Minority
Aklan Lone Florencio T. Miraflores Liberal 1 2004 Majority
Albay 1st Edcel C. Lagman Lakas-CMD 1 2004 Majority
2nd Carlos R. Imperial NPC/Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
3rd Joey S. Salceda[n 2] Lakas-CMD/KAMPI 3 1998 Majority
Antipolo City 1st Ronaldo Puno, Jr.[n 3] KAMPI 1 2004 Majority
2nd Victor R. Sumulong KAMPI 3 1998 Majority
Antique Lone Exequiel B. Javier Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
Apayao Lone Elias C. Bulut, Jr. NPC 3 1998 Majority
Aurora Lone Juan Edgardo M. Angara LDP 1 2004 Minority
Bacolod City Lone Monico O. Puentevella Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
Baguio City Lone Mauricio G. Domogan Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
Basilan Lone Gerry A. Salapuddin Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
Bataan 1st Antonino P. Roman Liberal 3 1998 Majority
2nd Albert S. Garcia Lakas-CMD/KAMPI 1 2004 Majority
Batanes Lone Henedina R. Abad Liberal 1 2004 Majority
Batangas 1st Eileen Ermita-Buhain Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
2nd Hermilando I. Mandanas Liberal 1 2004 Majority
3rd Victoria H. Reyes Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
4th Oscar L. Gozos KAMPI 2 2001 Majority
Benguet Lone Samuel M. Dangwa Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
Biliran Lone Gerardo J. Espina, Jr. KAMPI 1 2004 Majority
Bohol 1st Edgar M. Chatto Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
2nd Roberto C. Cajes Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
3rd Eladio M. Jala Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
Bukidnon 1st J.R. Nereus O. Acosta Liberal 3 1998 Majority
2nd Teofisto "TG" L. Guingona III Nacionalista 1 2004 Minority
3rd Juan Miguel F. Zubiri Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
Bulacan 1st   Wilhelmino M. Sy-Alvarado Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
2nd   Pedro M. Pancho NPC 1 2004 Majority
3rd   Lorna C. Silverio Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
4th   Reylina G. Nicolas Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
Cagayan 1st   Juan C. Ponce Enrile, Jr. NPC 3 1998 Minority
2nd   Florencio L. Vargas Liberal 1 2004 Majority
3rd   Manuel N. Mamba Liberal 2 2001 Majority
Cagayan de Oro City Lone   Constantino G. Jaraula Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
Caloocan City 1st   Oscar G. Malapitan Nacionalista 1 2004 Minority
2nd   Luis A. Asistio NPC 1 2004 Minority
Camarines Norte Lone   Renato J. Unico, Jr. Lakas-CMD/KAMPI 2 2001 Majority
Camarines Sur 1st   Ronaldo G. Andaya[n 4] Liberal 3 1998 Majority
2nd   Luis R. Villafuerte KAMPI 1 2004 Majority
3rd   Arnulfo P. Fuentebella NPC 1 2004 Majority
4th   Felix R. Alfelor, Jr. Lakas-CMD/KAMPI 2 2001 Majority
Camiguin Lone   Jurdin Jesus M. Romualdo NPC 3 1998 Majority
Capiz 1st   Rodriguez D. Dadivas Liberal 2 2001 Majority
2nd   Fred H. Castro Liberal 2 2001 Majority
Catanduanes Lone   Joseph A. Santiago NPC 2 2001 Majority
Cavite 1st   Joseph Emilio A. Abaya Liberal 1 2004 Majority
2nd   Gilbert C. Remulla Nacionalista 2 2001 Majority
3rd   Jesus Crispin C. Remulla Nacionalista 1 2004 Majority
Cebu 1st   Eduardo R. Gullas Nacionalista 1 2004 Majority
2nd   Simeon L. Kintanar NPC 3 1998 Majority
3rd   Antonio P. Yapha, Jr. NPC/Alayon 3 1998 Majority
4th   Clavel A. Martinez Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
5th   Joseph H. Durano[n 5] Lakas-CMD/NPC 3 1998 Majority
  Ramon "Red" H. Durano VI[n 6] NPC 0 2005 Majority
6th   Nerissa Corazon Soon-Ruiz KAMPI 2 2001 Majority
Cebu City 1st   Raul V. Del Mar Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
2nd   Antonio V. Cuenco Lakas-CMD/PROMDI 2 2001 Majority
Compostela Valley 1st   Manuel "Way Kurat" E. Zamora Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
2nd   Prospero S. Amatong Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
Cotabato (North) 1st   Emmylou J. Taliño-Santos Nacionalista 2 2001 Majority
2nd   Gregorio T. Ipong NPC 3 1998 Majority
Davao City 1st   Prospero C. Nograles Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
2nd   Vincent J. Garcia NPC 2 2001 Majority
3rd   Ruy Elias C. Lopez NPC 3 1998 Minority
Davao del Norte 1st   Arrel R. Olaño Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
2nd   Antonio R. Floirendo, Jr. Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
Davao del Sur 1st   Douglas R.A. Cagas NPC 3 1998 Majority
2nd   Claude P. Bautista NPC 2 2001 Majority
Davao Oriental 1st   Corazon N. Malanyaon KAMPI 2 2001 Majority
2nd   Mayo Z. Almario Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
Eastern Samar Lone   Marcelino C. Libanan[n 7] Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
Guimaras Lone   Edgar T. Espinosa Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
Ifugao Lone   Solomon R. Chungalao Liberal 2 2001 Majority
Ilocos Norte 1st   Roque R. Ablan, Jr. Lakas-CMD/KBL 2 2001 Majority
2nd   Imee R. Marcos KBL 3 1998 Minority
Ilocos Sur 1st   Salacnib F. Baterina Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
2nd   Eric D. Singson Liberal 2 2001 Majority
Iloilo 1st   Janette L. Garin Lakas-CMD 1 2004 Majority
2nd   Judy Syjuco Liberal 1 2004 Majority
3rd   Arthur D. Defensor Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
4th   Ferjenel G. Biron KAMPI 1 2004 Majority
5th   Rolex T. Suplico LDP 3 1998 Minority
Iloilo City Lone   Raul T. Gonzalez, Jr. Lakas-CMD 1 2004 Majority
Isabela 1st   Rodolfo T. Albano III KAMPI 1 2004 Majority
2nd   Edwin C. Uy Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
3rd   Faustino G. Dy III NPC 2 2001 Majority
4th   Anthony C. Miranda KAMPI 1 2004 Majority
Kalinga Lone   Laurence B. Wacnang Liberal 3 1998 Majority
La Union 1st   Manuel C. Ortega NPC 3 1998 Majority
2nd   Tomas M. Dumpit KAMPI 3 1998 Majority
Laguna 1st   Uliran T. Joaquin NPC 3 1998 Majority
2nd   Justin S.B. Chipeco Nacionalista 1 2004 Minority
3rd   Danton Q. Bueser Liberal 3 1998 Majority
4th   Benjamin C. Agarao, Jr. Liberal 1 2004 Minority
Lanao del Norte 1st   Alipio V. Badelles NPC 3 1998 Majority
2nd   Abdullah D. Dimaporo Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
Lanao del Sur 1st   Faysah R.P.M. Dumarpa Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
2nd   Benasing O. Macarambon, Jr. NPC 3 1998 Majority
Las Piñas City Lone   Cynthia A. Villar Nacionalista 2 2001 Majority
Leyte 1st   Remedios L. Petilla Lakas-CMD 1 2004 Majority
2nd   Trinidad G. Apostol Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
3rd   Eduardo K. Veloso Lakas-CMD/NPC 3 1998 Majority
4th   Eufrocino M. Codilla, Sr. Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
5th   Carmen L. Cari Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
Maguindanao 1st   Baisendig G. Dilangalen PMP 1 2004 Minority
2nd   Simeon A. Datumanong Lakas-CMD 1 2004 Majority
Makati City 1st   Teodoro L. Locsin, Jr. PDP-Laban 2 2001 Majority
2nd   Agapito A. Aquino LDP 3 1998 Minority
Malabon CityNavotas Lone   Federico S. Sandoval II Liberal 3 1998 Majority
Mandaluyong City Lone   Benjamin D. Abalos, Jr. Lakas-CMD 1 2004 Majority
Manila 1st   Ernesto A. Nieva Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
2nd   Jaime C. Lopez Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
3rd   Miles M. Roces Liberal 1 2004 Majority
4th   Rodolfo C. Bacani Liberal 3 1998 Majority
5th   Joey D. Hizon Nacionalista 3 1998 Majority
6th   Bienvenido M. Abante, Jr. Lakas-CMD 1 2004 Majority
Marikina City Lone   Del R. De Guzman Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
Marinduque Lone   Edmundo O. Reyes, Jr. Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
Masbate 1st   Narciso R. Bravo, Jr. KAMPI 1 2004 Majority
2nd   Emilio R. Espinosa, Jr. NPC 3 1998 Majority
3rd   Rizalina Seachon-Lanete NPC 1 2004 Majority
Misamis Occidental 1st   Ernie D. Clarete REPORMA-LM 2 2001 Majority
2nd   Herminia M. Ramiro Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
Misamis Oriental 1st   Danilo P. Lagbas KNP 1 2004 Majority
2nd   Augusto H. Baculio KAMPI 3 1998 Majority
Mountain Province Lone   Victor S. Dominguez KAMPI 1 2004 Majority
Muntinlupa City Lone   Rozzano Rufino B. Biazon Liberal 2 2001 Majority
Negros Occidental 1st   Tranquilino B. Carmona KAMPI 1 2004 Majority
2nd   Alfredo D. Marañon III KAMPI 1 2004 Majority
3rd   Jose Carlos V. Lacson Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
4th   Carlos O. Cojuangco NPC 3 1998 Majority
5th   Ignacio T. Arroyo KAMPI 1 2004 Majority
6th   Genaro Rafael K. Alvarez III KAMPI/NPC 1 2004 Majority
Negros Oriental 1st   Jacinto V. Paras LDP 3 1998 Minority
2nd   Emilio C. Macias II NPC 3 1998 Majority
3rd   Herminio G. Teves Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
Northern Samar 1st   Harlin C. Abayon Liberal 3 1998 Majority
2nd   Romualdo T. Vicencio[n 8] Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
Nueva Ecija 1st   Josefina M. Joson NPC 3 1998 Majority
2nd   Eleuterio R. Violago Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
3rd   Aurelio M. Umali Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
4th   Rodolfo W. Antonino KAMPI 1 2004 Majority
Nueva Vizcaya Lone   Rodolfo Q. Agbayani LDP 1 2004 Minority
Occidental Mindoro Lone   Ma. Amelita C. Villarosa KAMPI 1 2004 Majority
Oriental Mindoro 1st   Rodolfo G. Valencia Liberal 1 2004 Majority
2nd   Alfonso V. Umali, Jr. Liberal 2 2001 Majority
Palawan 1st   Antonio C. Alvarez KAMPI 1 2004 Majority
2nd   Abraham Kahlil B. Mitra Liberal 2 2001 Majority
Pampanga 1st   Francis L. Nepomuceno NPC 3 1998 Majority
2nd   Mikey Macapagal Arroyo Lakas-CMD 1 2004 Majority
3rd   Rey B. Aquino Lakas-CMD 1 2004 Majority
4th   Anna York P. Bondoc Nacionalista 1 2004 Majority
Pangasinan 1st   Arthur F. Celeste KAMPI 2 2001 Majority
2nd   Amado T. Espino, Jr. KAMPI 2 2001 Majority
3rd   Generoso D.C. Tulagan KAMPI 3 1998 Majority
4th   Jose de Venecia, Jr. Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
5th   Mark O. Cojuangco NPC 2 2001 Majority
6th   Conrado M. Estrella III NPC 2 2001 Majority
Parañaque City 1st   Eduardo C. Zialcita Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
2nd   Roilo Golez KAMPI 1 2004 Majority
Pasay City Lone   Consuelo A. Dy KAMPI 2 2001 Majority
Pasig City Lone   Robert "Dodot" Jaworski, Jr. Lakas-CMD 1 2004 Majority
Quezon 1st   Rafael P. Nantes Liberal 3 1998 Majority
2nd   Proceso J. Alcala Liberal 1 2004 Majority
3rd   Danilo E. Suarez Liberal 1 2004 Majority
4th   Lorenzo R. Tañada III Liberal 1 2004 Majority
Quezon City 1st   Vincent "Bingbong" P. Crisologo Nacionalista 1 2004 Minority
2nd   Mary Ann L. Susano Lakas-CMD 1 2004 Majority
3rd   Matias V. Defensor, Jr. Liberal 1 2004 Majority
4th   Nanette Castelo-Daza Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
Quirino Lone   Junie E. Cua Liberal 2 2001 Majority
Rizal 1st   Michael John "Jack" R. Duavit NPC 2 2001 Majority
2nd   Isidro S. Rodriguez, Jr. NPC 3 1998 Majority
Romblon Lone   Eduardo C. Firmalo KAMPI 1 2004 Majority
Samar (Western) 1st   Reynaldo S. Uy Liberal 2 2001 Majority
2nd   Catalino V. Figueroa Nacionalista 1 2004 Majority
San Jose del Monte City Lone   Eduardo V. Roquero Lakas-CMD 1 2004 Majority
San Juan Lone   Ronaldo B. Zamora PMP 2 2001 Minority
Sarangani Lone   Erwin L. Chiongbian Lakas-CMD/SARRO 2 2001 Majority
Siquijor Lone   Orlando A. Fua, Jr. Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
Sorsogon 1st   Francis G. Escudero NPC 3 1998 Minority
2nd   Jose G. Solis KAMPI 2 2001 Majority
South Cotabato 1st   Darlene R. Antonino-Custodio NPC 2 2001 Minority
2nd   Arthur Y. Pingoy, Jr. NPC 2 2001 Majority
Southern Leyte Lone   Roger G. Mercado Lakas-CMD 1 2004 Majority
Sultan Kudarat Lone   Suharto "Teng" T. Mangudadatu KAMPI 1 2004 Majority
Sulu 1st   Hussin U. Amin Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
2nd   Munir M. Arbison Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
Surigao del Norte 1st   Glenda B. Ecleo Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
2nd   Ace S. Barbers Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
Surigao del Sur 1st   Prospero A. Pichay, Jr. Lakas-CMD 3 1998 Majority
2nd   Peter Paul Jed C. Falcon KAMPI 1 2004 Majority
Taguig CityPateros Lone   Alan Peter S. Cayetano Nacionalista 3 1998 Minority
Tarlac 1st   Gilberto C. Teodoro, Jr. NPC 3 1998 Majority
2nd   Benigno S. Aquino III Liberal 3 1998 Majority
3rd   Jesli A. Lapus, Jr.[n 9] NPC 3 1998 Majority
Tawi-Tawi Lone   Nur G. Jaafar[n 10] Lakas-CMD 1 2004 Majority
Valenzuela City 1st   Bobbit L. Carlos Lakas-CMD 1 2004 Majority
2nd   Antonio M. Serapio[n 11] Nacionalista 1 2004 Minority
Zambales 1st   Ma. Milagros "Mitos" H. Magsaysay Lakas-CMD 1 2004 Majority
2nd   Antonio M. Diaz Liberal 1 2004 Majority
Zamboanga City Lone   Erico Basilio A. Fabian LDP 1 2004 Minority
Zamboanga del Norte 1st   Cecilia G. Jalosjos-Carreon PDSP 2 2001 Majority
2nd   Roseller L. Barinaga NPC 3 1998 Majority
3rd   Cesar G. Jalosjos PDSP 1 2004 Majority
Zamboanga del Sur 1st   Isidoro E. Real, Jr. Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority
2nd   Antonio H. Cerilles NPC 1 2004 Majority
Zamboanga Sibugay Lone   Belma A. Cabilao Lakas-CMD 2 2001 Majority

Sectoral representatives

Party-List Representative Term First Elected Bloc
Akbayan Citizens' Action Party Mario Joyo Aguja 2 2001 Majority
Ana Theresia "Risa" Hontiveros-Baraquel 1 2004 Majority
Loretta Ann P. Rosales 3 1998 Majority
Alagad Marcoleta, Rodante D. 1 2004 Majority
Alliance of Volunteer Educators Eulogio R. Magsaysay 1 2004 Majority
An Waray Florencio "Bem" G. Noel 1 2004 Minority
Anak Mindanao Mujiv Hataman 2 2001 Minority
Anakpawis Crispin B. Beltran 1 2004 Majority
Rafael V. Mariano 1 2004 Majority
Ang Laban ng Indiginong Filipino Acmad M. Tomawis 1 2004 Majority
Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives Sunny Rose A. Madamba 2 2001 Majority
Ernesto C. Pablo 2 2001 Majority
Edgar L. Valdez 2 2001 Majority
Bayan Muna Teodoro A. Casiño 1 2004 Majority
Satur C. Ocampo 2 2001 Majority
Joel G. Virador 2 2001 Majority
Buhay Hayaan Yumabong Christian M. Señeres 2 2001 Majority
Rene M. Velarde 2 2001 Majority
Citizen's Battle Against Corruption Emmanuel Joel J. Villanueva 2 2001 Minority
Cooperative NATCCO Network Party Guillermo P. Cua 1 2004 Majority
GABRIELA Liza L. Maza 1 2004 Majority
Luzon Farmers Party (Butil) Leonila V. Chavez 1 2004 Majority
Partido ng Manggagawa Renato "Ka Rene" B. Magtubo 3 1998 Minority
Veterans Freedom Party Estrella de Leon Santos[n 12] 1 2007 Majority


  1. ^ Luis Bersamin, Jr. was assassinated on December 16, 2006.[13]
  2. ^ Joey S. Salceda was appointed Presidential Chief of Staff on February 10, 2007.
  3. ^ Ronaldo Puno, Jr. was appointed Interior and Local Government Secretary on February 5, 2006.
  4. ^ Ronaldo G. Andaya was appointed Budget and Management Secretary on February 5, 2006.
  5. ^ Joseph "Ace" H. Durano was appointed as Tourism Secretary on August 19, 2004.
  6. ^ Assumed office on June 9, 2005. Elected in a special election on May 30, 2005 to complete the unexpired term of Joseph "Ace" H. Durano (Lakas-CMD) who was appointed Tourism Secretary on August 19, 2004.
  7. ^ Marcelino C. Libanan was appointed Commissioner of the Bureau of Immigration on April 18, 2007[14]
  8. ^ Romualdo T. Vicencio died on July 26, 2006.
  9. ^ Jesli A. Lapus, Jr. was appointed Education Secretary on July 24, 2006.
  10. ^ Replaced Anuar J. Abubakar (Lakas-CMD) as per House Electoral Tribunal decision on June 30, 2006.[15]
  11. ^ Antonio M. Serapio died on February 19, 2007.[16]
  12. ^ Assumed office on January 31, 2007[17] after Ernesto S. Gidaya died on January 29, 2007.[18]


  1. ^ Arroyo will push Cha-cha, hit at ‘Imperial Manila’ in SONA Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine Accessed on July 21, 2006.
  2. ^ House approves resolution convening constituent assembly Maila Ager Accessed on December 7, 2006.
  3. ^ 22 senators close ranks, vow to boycott Con-ass Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine Accessed on December 9, 2006.
  4. ^ Arroyo foes gear for ‘serious battle’ Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine Accessed on December 8, 2006.
  5. ^ CBCP planning nationwide protests vs constituent assembly Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine Accessed on December 8, 2006.
  6. ^ Palace backtracks, now favors constitutional convention, too Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine Accessed on December 9, 2006
  7. ^ De Venecia calls for constitutional convention Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine Accessed on December 9, 2006.
  8. ^ Senators nix De Venecia’s 72-hour con-con deadline Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine Accessed on December 9, 2006.
  9. ^ Senate OKs Con-con but there’s no rush Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine Accessed on December 13, 2006.
  10. ^ Constitutional convention ‘dead,’ says solon Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine Accessed on December 12, 2006.
  11. ^ Arroyo signs P1.126-trillion budget Archived 2007-04-01 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed on May 26, 2007
  12. ^ Singson is new Deputy Speaker Archived 2007-10-12 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed on March 22, 2007.
  13. ^ Abra lawmaker murdered Archived 2007-11-08 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed on December 17, 2006.
  14. ^ Arroyo names lawmaker new immigration commissioner Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed on April 18, 2007.
  15. ^ Jaafar wins protest vs Tawi-Tawi Rep. Abubakar Accessed on July 6, 2006.
  16. ^ Rep. Serapio dies in vehicular accident Archived December 19, 2007, at the Wayback Machine Accessed on February 20, 2007.
  17. ^ A Lady Takes Over Accessed on February 1, 2007.
  18. ^ Party-list Rep. Ernesto Gidaya passes away Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine Accessed on February 1, 2007.

External links

  • "List of Senators". Senate of the Philippines. Archived from the original on 2006-09-14. Retrieved 2006-09-16.
  • "The LAWPHi'L Project - Philippine Laws and Jurispudance Databank". Arellano Law Foundation. Archived from the original on 1 September 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-16.

Further reading

  • Philippine House of Representatives Congressional Library
  • The Presidents of the Senate of the Republic of the Philippines. ISBN 971-8832-24-6.
  • Pobre, Cesar P. Philippine Legislature 100 Years. ISBN 971-92245-0-9.

See also

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