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133rd Field Artillery Regiment (United States)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

133d Field Artillery Regiment
133rd Field Artillery Coat of Arms.svg
Coat of arms
Active1899
Country United States
Allegiance Texas
BranchTexas National Guard
TypeField artillery
SizeRegiment
Motto(s)Dum Spiramus Tuebimur (While We Breathe, We Shall Defend)
Insignia
Distinctive unit insignia
133 FA Rgt DUI.jpg
U.S. Field Artillery Regiments
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131st Field Artillery 134th Field Artillery


The 133rd Field Artillery Regiment is a field artillery regiment of the Army National Guard, first constituted in 1899.

Echo Battery 1/133 FA 49th AD served in Iraq March 2004 until March 2005. Attached to the 2ID and 36ID. 1st and 3rd counter motor radar units were assigned to FOB Marez, Mozul, Iraq. Other radar units were stationed in different areas of Iraq.

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Transcription

>> Rolfes: WE HAD NEVER BEEN IN COMBAT. WE HAD A BUNCH OF NAVAL GUNFIRE. THEY PRE-SHELLED THAT AND STRAFED IT WITH AIRCRAFT, THE BEACH THERE THAT WE WERE LANDING ON. I DIDN'T THINK THERE COULD BE A MOSQUITO LEFT THERE, YOU KNOW. >> Smith: I COULDN'T IMAGINE I WAS UP THERE, GOING TO SHOOT DOWN SOMEBODY WHO WAS JUST A BOY. >> Miller: THEY SAY WAR IS HELL, BUT I SAY IT'S DEVASTATING, IT'S CRUEL. IT'S JUST TERRIBLE. >> Leonard: I THOUGHT, MAN ALIVE, I'M STILL ALIVE, AND I'M GOING TO STAY THAT WAY PROBABLY, UNLESS I GET RUN OVER BY A JEEP, BECAUSE WE DON'T HAVE TO TAKE THIS DAMN PLACE. FUNDING FOR<i> IOWA'S WORLD WAR II STORIES</i> HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY<i> FRIENDS,</i> THE IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION FOUNDATION... GENERATIONS OF FAMILIES AND FRIENDS WHO FEEL PASSIONATE ABOUT IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION PROGRAMMING; AT ROCKWELL COLLINS WE'RE PROUD TO SUPPORT IOWA'S VETERANS. GREAT IDEAS ARE CREATED WHEN WE WORK TOGETHER TO BUILD A HERITAGE OF INNOVATION AND CONNECT WITH OUR COMMUNITIES. WE NEVER FORGET THE FORTUNES OF SO MANY DEPEND ON OUR PERFORMANCE. ROCKWELL COLLINS; THE PRINCIPAL FINANCIAL GROUP, A PROUD SUPPORTER OF THE MEN AND WOMEN WHO HAVE SACRIFICED FOR AMERICA AND THE WORLD. MAY THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS NEVER BE FORGOTTEN. >> THEY ANNOUNCED OVER THE SPEAKER TO MAN YOUR BATTLE STATIONS. "THIS IS NO BLANK." I'LL LET YOU FILL THAT IN YOURSELF. JUST AS THEY GOT THE LAST WORD OUT, I CAN REMEMBER VERY DISTINCTLY THAT A TORPEDO HIT JUST AS I WAS RUNNING DOWN THE STEPS TO GO TO MY BATTLE STATION DOWN AT THE POWDER DECK ABOARD THE BATTLESHIP. <i>GUNNER'S MATE PAUL ASCHBRENNER</i> <i>WAS A 19-YEAR-OLD SAILOR FROM SUMNER</i> <i>WHO HAD JOINED THE NAVY THE YEAR BEFORE</i> <i>BECAUSE THERE WERE NO JOBS AVAILABLE NEAR HIS HOME.</i> <i>ASCHBRENNER HAD BEEN ASSIGNED TO THE BATTLESHIP</i> <i>U.S.S. OKLAHOMA.</i> <i>ON SUNDAY, DECEMBER 7, 1941,</i> <i>THE OKLAHOMA WAS DOCKED IN PEARL HARBOR, HAWAII.</i> <i>THE ATTACK BEGAN AT 7:55 A.M. HAWAIIAN TIME.</i> <i>AFTER THE FIRST TORPEDOES STRUCK THE OKLAHOMA,</i> <i>THE LIGHTS WENT OUT AND ASCHBRENNER FOUND HIMSELF</i> <i>DEEP INSIDE THE SHIP IN THE DARK.</i> >> THE SHIP STARTED TO LIST -- STARTED TO TURN OVER. AS IT WAS TURNING OVER, I GOT ABOUT ONE OR TWO DECKS UP. I THINK THE NEXT DECK WAS THE SHELL DECK. I HONESTLY COULD SEE IN MY HEART THAT I COULDN'T POSSIBLY GET OUT OF THERE IN MY OWN STRENGTH. AND I -- I KNEW OF THE LORD, BUT I REALLY DIDN'T HAVE HIM INTO MY HEART. BUT I ASKED HIM IF HE WOULD SPARE MY LIFE THAT I WOULD DEDICATE MY LIFE OVER FOR HIM TO USE. AND IN SOME MIRACULOUS WAY, I DID GET OUT. AND AS I WAS GETTING OUT OF THE OVERHANG OF THE TURRET, THE CRUDE OIL AND WATER WAS COMING IN. <i>THE DIVE BOMBING AND TORPEDO ATTACKS</i> <i>LASTED FOR A LITTLE MORE THAN AN HOUR.</i> <i>FOR ASCHBRENNER AND EVERYONE ELSE AT PEARL HARBOR,</i> <i>THE ATTACK HAD BEEN A COMPLETE SURPRISE.</i> <i>AS THE JAPANESE PLANES FLEW AWAY,</i> <i>2,500 AMERICAN SOLDIERS, SAILORS, AND MARINES</i> <i>WERE EITHER DEAD OR MISSING.</i> <i>OF THE 525 IOWANS AT PEARL HARBOR</i> <i>ON THAT SUNDAY MORNING,</i> <i>88 WERE EITHER KILLED OR NEVER FOUND.</i> <i>A FEW HOURS LATER,</i> <i>COORDINATED ATTACKS BY IMPERIAL JAPANESE FORCES</i> <i>WERE CARRIED OUT AGAINST AMERICAN BASES</i> <i>LOCATED ON ISLANDS IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN.</i> <i>MARINE CORPORAL GLENN MCDOLE FROM URBANDALE</i> <i>WAS STATIONED AT THE CAVITE NAVAL BASE</i> <i>ON THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.</i> <i>LOCKED IN A BATTLE THAT WOULD LAST FIVE MONTHS,</i> <i>MCDOLE AND HIS BUDDIES SOON CAME TO THE CONCLUSION</i> <i>NO REINFORCEMENTS WERE COMING TO THEIR RESCUE.</i> >> WE KNEW THERE WAS NO WAY IN HEAVEN ACRES, AFTER WE'D HEARD WHAT HAPPENED AT PEARL HARBOR, THAT WE WAS GONNA GET ANY HELP. <i>EVENTUALLY, THE LARGER JAPANESE FORCE PREVAILED.</i> <i>AN OFFICIAL SURRENDER</i> <i>BY AMERICAN TROOPS IN THE PHILIPPINES</i> <i>WAS ANNOUNCED ON APRIL 9, 1942.</i> <i>MCDOLE FOUGHT ON UNTIL MAY 6.</i> >> I'LL TELL YOU, IT'S THE MOST SICK FEELING YOU GET WHEN YOU LOOK UP AND SEE OLD GLORY COME DOWN AND A JAPANESE FLAG GOES UP. IT JUST MADE YOU FEEL LIKE A BUNCH OF MEN WITHOUT A HOME. <i>ARMY CORPSMAN MALCOLM AMOS OF AFTON</i> <i>WAS AMONG THOSE CAPTURED ON APRIL 9.</i> <i>HE BECAME ONE OF THE MORE THAN 75,000 ALLIED FORCES,</i> <i>INCLUDING AN ESTIMATED 12,000 AMERICANS,</i> <i>WHO WERE FORCED TO WALK THE 60 MILES</i> <i>FROM THE TIP OF LUZON ISLAND</i> <i>TO THE AMERICAN MILITARY BASE, CAMP O'DONNELL.</i> <i>FOR SIX DAYS THE MEN MARCHED NORTH WITH NO FOOD OR WATER</i> <i>ON WHAT BECAME KNOWN AS THE BATAAN DEATH MARCH.</i> <i>ANYONE WHO WAS INJURED,</i> <i>FELL BEHIND, OR ATTEMPTED TO ESCAPE WAS KILLED.</i> <i>AN ESTIMATED 10,000 MEN DIED; 5,000 OF THEM WERE AMERICANS.</i> >> WHEN WE GOT INTO CAMP O'DONNELL, THAT RICE WAS MOLDY, FULL OF BUGS AND MAGGOTS, AND ALL THAT KIND OF STUFF. THEY COOKED ALL THAT STUFF UP, AND IT WAS KINDA LIKE A PORRIDGE. THE GUYS LOOKED AT THAT -- SOME OF THEM LOOKED AT THAT AND SAID, "I'M NOT EATING THAT KIND OF CRAP," AND THEY JUST TOOK AND DUMPED HER. AND THOSE PEOPLE ARE STILL OVER IN THE PHILIPPINES BECAUSE THEY JUST STARVED TO DEATH BECAUSE THAT'S THE ONLY THING THERE WAS TO EAT. <i>BOTH MCDOLE AND AMOS EVENTUALLY WOUND UP</i> <i>AT THE CABANATUAN PRISON CAMP,</i> <i>BUT THEY DIDN'T MEET EACH OTHER UNTIL YEARS AFTER THE WAR.</i> <i>MCDOLE, SEEING THE HIGH DEATH RATE</i> <i>AND LACK OF MEDICAL ATTENTION AVAILABLE TO THE MEN,</i> <i>VOLUNTEERED FOR WORK DETAILS AWAY FROM CABANATUAN.</i> <i>THE WORK DETAILS FINALLY TOOK HIM TO THE PALAWAN PRISON CAMP</i> <i>ON PALAWAN ISLAND,</i> <i>WHERE HE HELPED BUILD AN AIRFIELD.</i> >> WE DIDN'T CLASSIFY I'M ARMY OR YOU'RE A MARINE. WE WERE JUST ALL A BUNCH OF GOOD OLD AMERICAN FELLAS STICKING TOGETHER, AND I DON'T BELIEVE -- IN FACT I<i> KNOW</i> WE WERE ALL CLOSER THAN, REALLY, BROTHERS. <i>WITHIN DAYS OF THE ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR,</i> <i>WAR WAS DECLARED AGAINST</i> <i>WHAT WERE NOW BEING CALLED THE AXIS POWERS:</i> <i>GERMANY, ITALY, AND JAPAN.</i> <i>AT THE TIME NO ONE REALIZED WHAT KIND OF SACRIFICE</i> <i>WOULD BE REQUIRED BY THOSE ON THE BATTLEFRONT</i> <i>OR THE HOME FRONT.</i> <i>WHEN THE WAR FINALLY ENDED,</i> <i>MOST OF THE POPULATION OF THE WORLD</i> <i>WOULD BE AFFECTED IN ONE WAY OR ANOTHER.</i> <i>AS THE SHOCK OF THE ATTACKS IN DECEMBER WORE OFF,</i> <i>THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT BEGAN MOBILIZING TO FIGHT BACK.</i> <i>ACROSS THE COUNTRY,</i> <i>ABLE-BODIED MEN EITHER VOLUNTEERED OR WERE DRAFTED.</i> <i>THOUSANDS OF WOMEN JOINED THE MILITARY</i> <i>OR ENTERED THE WORK FORCE.</i> <i>THOSE MEN ALREADY IN UNIFORM</i> <i>WERE GATHERED AND SENT TO ATTACK THE AXIS POWERS.</i> <i>ON NOVEMBER 8, 1942,</i> <i>SERGEANT ELVIN MORITZ OF VILLISCA,</i> <i>WAS AMONG THE 160,000-MAN LANDING FORCE</i> <i>OF OPERATION TORCH THAT ATTACKED</i> <i>THE NORTH AFRICAN COUNTRY OF ALGIERS.</i> <i>AS PART OF THE IOWA NATIONAL GUARD,</i> <i>MORITZ HAD BEEN ON ACTIVE DUTY SINCE FEBRUARY OF 1941</i> <i>AS A MEMBER OF THE 168TH INFANTRY REGIMENT</i> <i>OF THE 34TH INFANTRY DIVISION.</i> <i>NICKNAMED THE "RED BULL,"</i> <i>THE 34TH WAS MADE UP OF NATIONAL GUARDSMEN FROM</i> <i>IOWA, MINNESOTA, AND THE DAKOTAS.</i> <i>THE MEN OF THE 34TH WERE AMONG THE FIRST TO JOIN WITH</i> <i>ALLIED FORCES FROM BRITAIN, CANADA, AND AUSTRALIA,</i> <i>TO FIGHT BACK AGAINST THE AXIS POWERS.</i> >> IN BATTLE, THE BRITISH -- IT WAS FOUR O'CLOCK IN THE AFTERNOON, AND THEY'D JUST GET OUT IN A BUNCH AND HAVE TEA -- HAVE THEIR TEA. EVERYTHING QUIETED DOWN. THE GERMANS QUIT SHOOTING AND NOBODY WAS SHOOTING. EVERYTHING WAS JUST AS QUIET AS COULD BE. I THINK THEY HAD A HALF-HOUR BREAK. AS SOON AS THE TIME WAS UP, THEY WERE SHOOTING AGAIN. <i>AS 1943 BEGAN,</i> <i>ALLIED FORCES SUFFERED SOME SETBACKS.</i> <i>BY FEBRUARY, AFTER SEVERAL MONTHS OF FIGHTING,</i> <i>MORITZ, AND THE REST OF THE 168'S COMPANY "F"</i> <i>HAD MOVED INTO NORTHEASTERN TUNISIA NEAR THE FAID PASS.</i> <i>EVENTUALLY GERMAN FORCES MANAGED TO SURROUND</i> <i>SEVERAL COMPANIES OF THE 168</i> <i>WHO WERE UNDER THE COMMAND OF MAJOR ROBERT MOORE OF VILLISCA.</i> <i>AS THE SUN WENT DOWN,</i> <i>THE GROUP FORMED TWO LONG COLUMNS</i> <i>AND BEGAN TO MARCH OUT OF THE AREA.</i> <i>THEY HAD WALKED PAST SEVERAL PATROLS OF GERMAN SOLDIERS,</i> <i>WHEN A LONE SENTRY ORDERED THEM TO HALT.</i> <i>MORITZ TOLD THE MEN TO RUN, AND THE SHOOTING BEGAN.</i> >> WE HAD GONE RIGHT BETWEEN TWO OF OUR OWN HALF-TRACKS THE GERMANS HAD CAPTURED, AND THEY WERE SHOOTING AT US WITH .50 CALIBERS. THEN, OF COURSE, I WAS IN THE LEAD. ONE WOULD SHOOT ACROSS THIS WAY AHEAD OF ME, AND THEN HE'D QUIT. AND THEN ONE WOULD SHOOT ACROSS THE OTHER WAY AHEAD OF ME, AND I WAS JUST ZIGZAGGING. <i>OF THE MORE THAN 900 MEN UNDER MOORE'S COMMAND,</i> <i>420 MADE IT TO THE AMERICAN LINES.</i> <i>MORITZ REMEMBERS 12 MEN, INCLUDING MAJOR MOORE,</i> <i>ESCAPING WITH HIM THAT NIGHT.</i> >> I, FOR ONE, WAS JUST CURIOUS, YOU KNOW, ABOUT GETTING INTO ACTUAL COMBAT. BUT AFTER ABOUT THE FOURTH DAY, NO MORE; I WAS READY TO COME HOME. <i>SERGEANT AURELIO BARRON HAD LEFT VALLEY JUNCTION</i> <i>TO JOIN THE MILITARY IN FEBRUARY OF 1941,</i> <i>AND WAS ASSIGNED TO THE RED BULL'S COMPANY "C"</i> <i>OF THE 168TH INFANTRY.</i> <i>DURING THE BATTLE FOR FAID PASS,</i> <i>SERGEANT BARRON'S MORTAR SQUAD WAS NEARBY, PERCHED ON A HILL,</i> <i>WAITING TO PROTECT THE RETREATING ALLIED TROOPS.</i> <i>BARRON BEGAN TO SURVEY</i> <i>THE ROAD BELOW HIS POSITION WITH BINOCULARS.</i> <i>UNKNOWN TO BARRON,</i> <i>GERMAN FIELD MARSHAL ERWIN ROMMEL,</i> <i>SUPREME COMMANDER OF ALL GERMAN TROOPS IN AFRICA,</i> <i>WAS CLOSER THAN HE THOUGHT.</i> >> THERE WAS VEHICLES, SMALL CONVOY COMING UP THE ROAD AND TURNED RIGHT IN FRONT OF WHERE WE COULD SEE. IT WAS ABOUT 400 YARDS, MAYBE, AWAY FROM US. AND TO THIS DAY I SAY IT WAS ROMMEL BECAUSE OF THE VEHICLES THAT THEY WERE IN AND THE TRADEMARK OF THE CAP AND GOGGLES. NEXT THING WE HEAR, ARTILLERY IS COMING IN. FORTUNATELY THEY WERE SHOOTING AND HITTING OVER BEHIND US. THEY WERE THROWING IT AT US. THEN YOU HEAR THE CLINKETY-CLINK. THEY WERE TANKS AND ARMORED VEHICLES, THE ARMORED INFANTRY. THE COMPANY COMMANDER SAYS EVERYBODY FOR THEMSELVES; EVERYBODY BETTER GET OUT OF HERE. <i>BACK HOME IN IOWA,</i> <i>THE NEWS FROM THE BATTLEFRONT WAS LIMITED.</i> <i>THE LACK OF INFORMATION ONLY SERVED TO DEEPEN</i> <i>THE WORRY FOR THE FAMILIES OF THE MEN IN THE 34TH.</i> <i>IN MONTGOMERY COUNTY, THAT WORRY WAS INTENSIFIED</i> <i>BECAUSE A LARGE PERCENTAGE OF THE MEN FROM THE AREA</i> <i>WERE FIGHTING IN TUNISIA.</i> <i>AS THE BATTLE RAGED ON,</i> <i>15-YEAR-OLD REX HOLMES OF RED OAK</i> <i>WAITED IN THE WESTERN UNION TELEGRAPH OFFICE</i> <i>IN THE RED OAK HOTEL.</i> >> IN DES MOINES THEY SIGNALED THAT THEY HAD TRAFFIC FOR RED OAK. WELL, I KNEW HOW TO OPERATE THE MACHINE, SO I TURNED AROUND AND FLIPPED THE SWITCH AND TOLD THEM TO GO AHEAD. ALL OF A SUDDEN IT DAWNED ON ME, THAT DAMN MACHINE IS STILL RUNNING. IT'S BEEN RUNNING QUITE A WHILE. I WENT OVER THERE AND I PICKED UP THE TAPE THAT HAD RUN INTO A WASTE BASKET, AND I PICKED UP THE TAPE AND STARTED LOOKING AT IT. AND I READ TWO OF THEM. AND I KNEW RIGHT THEN AND THERE WE WAS IN TROUBLE. I THOUGHT THEY NEVER WOULD STOP. <i>NONE OF THE DELIVERIES HOLMES MADE THAT DAY</i> <i>WOULD BE HAPPY ONES.</i> >> THERE WAS ONE LADY HERE IN TOWN, SHE HAD THREE SONS AND A SON-IN-LAW. SHE WORKED AS A MAID THERE AT THAT HOTEL. AND WHEN THOSE THINGS COME IN, I TOOK THE FIRST TWO UP. AND, OF COURSE, WHEN SHE GOT THE FIRST ONE, SHE LIKED TO HAVE HAD A FIT. WHEN THE SECOND ONE COME, THEN SHE REALLY GOT EXCITED. THEY HAD TO GET A DOCTOR UP THERE FOR HER. <i>BY THE END OF THE DAY,</i> <i>HOLMES HAD DELIVERED MORE THAN 60 TELEGRAMS TO AREA FAMILIES.</i> <i>AT THE END OF THE WAR, MORE MEN PER CAPITA</i> <i>HAD BEEN LOST FROM THE MONTGOMERY COUNTY AREA</i> <i>THAN FROM ANY OTHER COUNTY IN THE UNITED STATES.</i> <i>TO HELP WIN THE FIGHT FROM THE HOME FRONT,</i> <i>THE U.S. GOVERNMENT ASKED ITS CITIZENS TO INCREASE</i> <i>PRODUCTION OF EVERYTHING FROM AMMUNITION TO FOOD.</i> <i>ED TUBBS, OF DELMAR, HAD JUST GRADUATED FROM</i> <i>IOWA STATE COLLEGE IN DECEMBER OF 1941.</i> >> I WENT TO WORK IN JASPER COUNTY, LIVED IN NEWTON, FOR THE EXTENSION SERVICE. I WAS THERE FOR SIX MONTHS, AND IT OCCURRED TO ME THAT IT WAS PROBABLY TIME TO GET INVOLVED, SO I VOLUNTEERED. <i>SEVERAL MONTHS AFTER ENLISTING,</i> <i>TUBBS' FATHER, CLIFTON, BECAME ILL.</i> <i>TUBBS PETITIONED THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOR A DEFERMENT,</i> <i>WHICH WOULD ALLOW HIM TO RETURN TO DELMAR.</i> <i>FARMERS FED THE TROOPS, SO THE REQUEST WAS GRANTED.</i> >> AS FAR AS BALANCING SUPPLY AND DEMAND, IT WASN'T GETTING DONE UNTIL THE WAR CAME ALONG. AND THEN, OF COURSE, DEMAND EXPLODED, AND WE SUDDENLY NEEDED TO PRODUCE EVERYTHING WE COULD IN ORDER TO FEED THE PEOPLE, SUPPLY THE ARMED FORCES, AND SO ON. SO WE WERE INTO PRODUCTION IN A BIG WAY, AS BIG A WAY AS WE COULD WITH THE EQUIPMENT WE HAD. IT WAS A TOUGH TIME, A TOUGH TIME, REALLY. <i>THOUGH FARMERS HAD BEEN ASKED TO PRODUCE AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE</i> <i>IT WAS STILL NOT ENOUGH TO FEED BOTH A HUNGRY NATION</i> <i>AND MILLIONS OF PEOPLE IN THE MILITARY.</i> <i>TO HELP PREVENT A SHORTAGE FOR THOSE IN UNIFORM,</i> <i>THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT BEGAN TO RATION EVERYTHING</i> <i>WITH A STRATEGIC VALUE.</i> <i>SPECIAL COUPON BOOKS WERE ISSUED TO EVERY</i> <i>MAN, WOMAN, AND CHILD IN THE UNITED STATES.</i> <i>WITHOUT THE COUPON BOOKS, YOU COULD NOT BUY CERTAIN ITEMS</i> <i>LIKE SUGAR, MEAT, TIRES, OR GASOLINE.</i> >> I THINK EVERY TIME BEFORE THE BABY WAS WIPED OFF, WHY, EVERYBODY WAS GOING TO SIGN HIM UP FOR A RATION CARD. AND YOU GET ONE FOR THE BABY WHEN HE'S BORN. OBVIOUSLY HE WASN'T ABLE TO USE ALL THE STUFF THAT YOU COULD BUY WITH THOSE COUPONS. AND THOSE COUPON BOOKS WERE COVETED. AS USUAL, YOU KNOW, A LOT OF SWAPPING GOING ON. IF YOU HAD A RATION CARD FOR PICKLES AND YOU DIDN'T LIKE PICKLES, YOU COULD TRADE IT WITH SOMEBODY. <i>IN 1941 THE UNITED STATES</i> <i>WAS STILL RECOVERING FROM THE GREAT DEPRESSION.</i> <i>THE JOBLESS RATE HAD BEEN AS HIGH AS 25 PERCENT,</i> <i>BANKRUPTCY WAS NOT UNCOMMON,</i> <i>AND THE STANDARD OF LIVING FOR MOST AMERICANS WAS</i> <i>60 PERCENT LOWER THAN BEFORE THE STOCK MARKET CRASH OF 1929.</i> <i>WHEN THE WAR STARTED, ALL THAT CHANGED.</i> <i>MORE PEOPLE WERE NEEDED TO PRODUCE THE FOOD AND WEAPONS</i> <i>FOR THE MEN ON THE FRONT LINES.</i> <i>THE NEW JOBS WERE TAKEN BY MANY WHO HAD BEEN</i> <i>OUT OF WORK FOR SEVERAL YEARS.</i> <i>AS MORE MEN WERE SENT AWAY TO FIGHT,</i> <i>WOMEN WERE HIRED TO TAKE OVER THEIR POSITIONS</i> <i>ON THE ASSEMBLY LINES.</i> <i>BEFORE WORLD WAR II, WOMEN HAD GENERALLY BEEN</i> <i>DISCOURAGED FROM WORKING OUTSIDE THE HOME.</i> <i>NOW THEY WERE BEING ENCOURAGED TO TAKE OVER JOBS</i> <i>THAT HAD BEEN TRADITIONALLY CONSIDERED "MEN'S WORK."</i> <i>EXISTING COMPANIES CHANGED THEIR LINES FROM</i> <i>CONSUMER GOODS TO WAR MATERIALS,</i> <i>AND NEW PLANTS WERE CONSTRUCTED STRICTLY FOR THE CREATION OF</i> <i>PRODUCTS FOR THE WAR EFFORT.</i> <i>IN ANKENY, THE DES MOINES ORDINANCE PLANT</i> <i>WAS ALREADY UNDER CONSTRUCTION WHEN WAR WAS DECLARED.</i> <i>BY 1942, .30 AND .50 CALIBER MACHINE GUN AMMUNITION</i> <i>BEGAN TO ROLL OFF THE LINE.</i> <i>JEANNE ERSLAND OF ANKENY, FORMERLY JEANNE GIBSON,</i> <i>WAS AMONG THE 19,000 PEOPLE WHO WORKED AT THE FACILITY.</i> >> I THINK THEY GAVE US A SHORT INDOCTRINATION AS TO WHAT WE WERE THERE FOR, AND THEN THEY TOOK US RIGHT TO THE WORKING AREA. I STAYED IN THAT SAME WORKING AREA ALL THE TIME THAT I WAS THERE. I THINK THE PATRIOTISM CAME AS IT PROGRESSED AND I WAS THINKING OF GOING ON INTO THE SERVICE. <i>AFTER MORE THAN A YEAR AT THE ORDINANCE PLANT, ERSLAND JOINED</i> <i>THE UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS WOMEN'S RESERVE.</i> <i>FOLLOWING TRAINING AT CAMP LEJEUNE,</i> <i>SHE WAS ASSIGNED TO CHERRY POINT, NORTH CAROLINA,</i> <i>AND WORKED AS AN AIRCRAFT ENGINE MECHANIC.</i> <i>MAYTAG WAS ONE OF THE IOWA FIRMS</i> <i>THAT STOPPED PRODUCING CONSUMER GOODS</i> <i>AND STARTED MAKING WAR SUPPLIES.</i> <i>IN 1943, 19-YEAR-OLD HOLLYS "PAT" HARRISON</i> <i>FROM ALBIA, FORMERLY HOLLYS TARBELL,</i> <i>HAD BEEN WORKING FOR A LOCAL DENTIST</i> <i>TAKING CARE OF DOMESTIC CHORES.</i> <i>HARRISON SAW A NEWSPAPER ADVERTISEMENT PLACED BY</i> <i>THE MAYTAG COMPANY IN NEWTON.</i> >> ALL THE GUYS WERE DOING SOMETHING. THEY WERE FIGHTING, GOING TO SERVICE, AND ENLISTING AND WHAT HAVE YOU, THAT WE KNEW. WE THOUGHT IT WOULD BE A GOOD IDEA FOR US TO DO SOMETHING TOO WHILE WE COULD, AND THE MONEY WAS GOOD. <i>THE COMPANY, FAMOUS FOR ITS CLOTHES WASHERS,</i> <i>STARTED MAKING AIRCRAFT PARTS.</i> <i>HARRISON WAS HIRED TO MAKE</i> <i>EXHAUST SYSTEMS FOR B-26 MARAUDER BOMBERS.</i> <i>TO HELP FINANCE THE CREATION OF WAR GOODS,</i> <i>THE GOVERNMENT BEGAN TO OFFER BONDS.</i> <i>THE INVESTMENT STRATEGY WAS NOT LOST ON MAYTAG EMPLOYEES.</i> <i>TOGETHER THEY PURCHASED</i> <i>A B-26 MARAUDER FOR THE WAR EFFORT.</i> <i>FOR SOME, JOINING THE SERVICE WAS A CHANCE TO RELOCATE.</i> <i>THELMA KARDON, FORMERLY SHERMAN,</i> <i>WAS A 21-YEAR-OLD NATIVE OF CHELSEA, MASSACHUSETTS,</i> <i>WHO JOINED THE WOMEN'S ARMY AUXILIARY CORPS</i> <i>IN NOVEMBER OF 1942.</i> >> THE TRAINING WAS FANTASTIC. IT PUT ME ON MY SHOULDERS, TOLD ME WHAT TO DO. I TOOK EVERYTHING IN, WHAT THEY HAD. YOU DIDN'T GET YOUR -- LIKE A CORPORAL SERGEANT; YOU HAD TO EARN IT. AND THEY TESTED YOU ON THAT EVERY MONTH IN ORDER TO GET MORE MONEY. AND I WAS GETTING $78 A MONTH. <i>KARDON TRAINED AT THE WAAC BASE</i> <i>LOCATED AT FORT DES MOINES</i> <i>AND EARNED THE RANK OF TECHNICAL SERGEANT.</i> <i>THE TRAINING FACILITY WAS THE FIRST OF ITS KIND</i> <i>FOR WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES.</i> <i>BECAUSE WOMEN WERE NOT ALLOWED TO BE INVOLVED IN COMBAT,</i> <i>THE WAACs TOOK STATESIDE AND FOREIGN HEADQUARTERS JOBS</i> <i>THAT ALLOWED MEN TO FIGHT THE BATTLES.</i> <i>KARDON SPENT THE DURATION OF HER SERVICE IN DES MOINES</i> <i>AS A MILITARY POLICEWOMAN.</i> >> I WAS SO PROUD TO BE THERE. THE PARADE GROUNDS AT FORT DES MOINES WERE JUST BEAUTIFUL, EVERYTHING. <i>FROM THE BARRACKS ON THE DRAKE UNIVERSITY CAMPUS,</i> <i>KARDON WOULD PATROL THE CITY OF DES MOINES</i> <i>WITH ONE OTHER WAAC,</i> <i>ARMED WITH NOTHING MORE THAN A FLASHLIGHT</i> <i>AND LIMITED TRAINING IN HAND-TO-HAND COMBAT.</i> <i>IN NOVEMBER OF 1943,</i> <i>SECOND LIEUTENANT AL ROLFES OF LE MARS</i> <i>WAS APPROACHING MAKIN ISLAND WITH HIS PLATOON.</i> <i>NOW 24 YEARS OLD,</i> <i>HE HAD BEEN DRAFTED IN FEBRUARY OF 1942</i> <i>AND ASSIGNED TO COMPANY "E" OF THE 165TH INFANTRY REGIMENT</i> <i>OF THE 27TH INFANTRY DIVISION.</i> >> WE DIDN'T KNOW WHAT WAS GOING TO HAPPEN. WE'D NEVER BEEN IN COMBAT. WE HAD A BUNCH OF NAVAL GUNFIRE. THEY PRE-SHELLED THAT AND STRAFED IT WITH AIRCRAFT, THE BEACH THERE THAT WE WERE LANDING ON. AND I DIDN'T THINK THERE COULD BE A MOSQUITO LEFT THERE. <i>AS HIS LANDING CRAFT APPROACHED THE BEACH,</i> <i>THE BOAT'S COMMANDER YELLED FINAL INSTRUCTIONS TO ROLFES.</i> >> ALL OF A SUDDEN HE YELLED AT ME; HE SAID, "LIEUTENANT, YOU'RE GOING TO BE ON YOUR OWN." AND WE WERE STARTING TO SLOW DOWN. WE WERE TOUCHING REEF AND WE HAD HEAVY LOADS, A TANK AND EVERYTHING. AND HE DROPPED THE RAMP AND I WENT HEAD OVER HEELS IN THE WATER. WELL, ANYWAY, I CAME UP SPITTING WATER. AND IT WAS WADEABLE, YOU KNOW, IT WASN'T -- BUT THEY WERE SHOOTING AT US OUT IN THE WATER TOO AS WE WERE HEADING IN. <i>MAKIN ISLAND WAS CAPTURED IN FOUR DAYS.</i> <i>NEARLY 1,000 AMERICANS WERE WOUNDED</i> <i>AND MORE THAN 350 WERE KILLED.</i> <i>AS THE END OF 1943 APPROACHED, THE 34TH DIVISION WAS PART OF</i> <i>THE FORCE THAT PUSHED AXIS TROOPS OUT OF AFRICA.</i> <i>ALLIED SOLDIERS HAD MOVED ACROSS THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA</i> <i>AND WERE NOW ON THE ITALIAN PENINSULA.</i> <i>EVEN WITH THE HEAVY FIGHTING,</i> <i>GREENFIELD NATIVE SERGEANT RUSSELL "BILL" SMITH,</i> <i>OF THE RED BULLS' 133RD INFANTRY REGIMENT COMPANY "I,"</i> <i>WAS ABLE TO HAVE AN OCCASIONAL RESPITE FROM BATTLE.</i> >> I THINK IN ITALY, ONCE WE WERE 76 DAYS ON THE LINE WAS THE LONGEST, BUT USUALLY ABOUT TWO MONTHS. THEN WE WOULD GET A TEN-DAY OFF THE LINE -- GET WHAT THEY CALL CARE AND CLEANING OF EQUIPMENT AND CLEANED UP ALL OF OUR STUFF. THEY'D HAVE A BIG SHOWER SET UP -- A BIG, LONG SHOWER. YOU'D GO IN THERE AND JUST SHOWER TILL YOUR HEART'S DELIGHT AND COME OUT THE OTHER END WITH NEW CLOTHES ON. THEN WE'D GET REPLACEMENTS AND WE'D TRAIN THEM FOR A FEW DAYS. THEN WE'D GO BACK UP TO THE FRONT LINE AGAIN. <i>BY MID-SUMMER 1944,</i> <i>MEMBERS OF COMPANY "I" WERE ATTACKING GERMAN TROOPS</i> <i>SOMEWHERE NORTH OF ROME, ITALY.</i> <i>BILL SMITH WAS RETURNING TO THE BATTLEFIELD</i> <i>AFTER REQUESTING AN ARTILLERY BARRAGE</i> <i>WHEN HE CAME UPON A SMALL PATROL OF FIVE GERMAN SOLDIERS</i> <i>THAT HAD MADE IT BEHIND THE AMERICAN LINES.</i> <i>AS THE GERMANS PREPARED TO SHOOT AT THE BACKS</i> <i>OF COMPANY "I" SOLDIERS,</i> <i>SMITH TOOK HIS CAPTURED GERMAN LUGAR OUT OF ITS HOLSTER.</i> >> I SEEN 'EM THERE SO THAT'S WHEN I STOPPED, AND THAT'S WHEN I REALIZED I DIDN'T HAVE A SHELL IN THE GUN OF MY -- A SHELL IN THE BARREL OF MY LUGAR. WELL, I JUST DREW UP LIKE THAT AND THAT CLICKED. THAT'S WHEN THIS GERMAN HEARD ME, WHEN THAT CLICKED. I HAD A SHELL IN THE BARREL THEN, AND I HAD IT ON HIM JUST LIKE THAT, YOU KNOW. AND HE DECIDED THAT WAS A GOOD TIME TO QUIT BEING A SOLDIER, I GUESS. HE LOOKED AROUND AND, OF COURSE, I HAD IT RIGHT ON HIM. THEN HE HOLLERED AT THE REST OF THEM, AND THEY ALL THREW UP THEIR HANDS AND DROPPED THEIR WEAPONS, AND I MARCHED THEM BACK. <i>FOR SAVING THE MEN IN COMPANY "I,"</i> <i>SMITH WAS AWARDED THE SILVER STAR.</i> <i>AFTER LANDING ON SAIPAN IN JUNE OF 1944,</i> <i>NOW FIRST LIEUTENANT AL ROLFES</i> <i>HAD DUG IN ABOVE TANAPAG HARBOR.</i> <i>JAPANESE SOLDIERS HIDING NEARBY</i> <i>SOON REALIZED HE WAS IN CHARGE</i> <i>AND BEGAN TO ATTACK HIS POSITION.</i> >> SO THEY KNEW I WAS A LEADER THERE BECAUSE I WAS UP AND DOWN THE LINE CHECKING THE MEN AND EVERYTHING. WELL, ANYWAY, I HEARD THIS THUMP ON THE END OF MY FOXHOLE, AND I KNEW IT WAS A GRENADE. AND RATHER THAN ROLL -- WE HAD THE PARAPET AROUND THE FOXHOLE -- IT ROLLED OUT OF MY FOXHOLE RATHER THAN INTO MY FOXHOLE, AND IT WENT OFF. AND QUITE AN EXPLOSION, OF COURSE. AND TWO MORE RIGHT BEHIND IT. AND I STILL DIDN'T -- THE OTHER TWO MEN IN MY PLATOON DIDN'T GET HIT EITHER. <i>IN THE SKIES OVER ITALY,</i> <i>24-YEAR-OLD FIRST LIEUTENANT LUTHER SMITH OF DES MOINES</i> <i>WAS ON HIS SECOND TOUR OF DUTY.</i> <i>AS A MEMBER OF THE TUSKEGEE AIRMEN,</i> <i>OFFICIALLY KNOWN AS THE 332ND FIGHTER GROUP,</i> <i>SMITH WAS EVENTUALLY ASSIGNED TO BOMBER ESCORT DUTY IN 1944.</i> <i>HIS JOB WAS TO PROTECT AMERICAN BOMBERS FROM GERMAN FIGHTERS.</i> >> THE GERMANS REALIZED THAT THESE YOUNG BLACK PILOTS STAYED WITH THE BOMBERS AND PROTECTED THEM VERY, VERY EFFECTIVELY. THE BOMBER CREWS REALIZED, AS THEY WERE ESCORTED BY THESE BLACK AVIATORS, THEY WERE GOING TO GET TO THEIR TARGET SAFELY AND GET BACK. AND THAT WAS REALLY THE BEGINNING OF RACIAL EQUALITY, WHEN THE WHITE BOMBER CREWS REALIZED THESE GUYS PROTECTING THEM WERE EVERY BIT AS GOOD AS ANYBODY COULD BE BECAUSE THEY WERE ABLE TO CARRY OUT THEIR MISSIONS SUCCESSFULLY. <i>ON ONE MISSION OVER SOUTHERN FRANCE,</i> <i>A GERMAN ME 109 FIGHTER PLANE</i> <i>PENETRATED THE FLIGHT OF BOMBERS</i> <i>SMITH WAS SENT TO PROTECT.</i> <i>HE APPROACHED IN HIS P-51 MUSTANG.</i> >> AND AS I DID, I WAS PARALLEL WITH THE GERMAN AIRPLANE, AND I COULD SEE IT WAS JUST A YOUNG PERSON. HE DIDN'T HAVE AN OXYGEN MASK ON, BECAUSE I COULD SEE HIS FACE. AND SO IT WAS JUST A YOUTH, AND TO ME IT APPEARED TO BE ABOUT A 16- OR 17-YEAR-OLD YOUTH. AND I COULDN'T IMAGINE I WAS UP THERE, GOING TO SHOOT DOWN SOMEBODY WHO WAS JUST A BOY. BUT I HAD MY JOB TO DO. SO I SAID, "WELL, I'M GOING TO TAKE THE AIRPLANE OUT." AND I SHOT THE AIRPLANE AND IT WENT DOWN. <i>DURING HIS TOUR OF DUTY,</i> <i>SMITH SHOT DOWN TWO GERMAN FIGHTER PLANES</i> <i>AND DESTROYED TEN GERMAN AIRCRAFT ON THE GROUND.</i> <i>BY THE END OF THE WAR, THE 332ND HAD PERFORMED</i> <i>200 ESCORT MISSIONS WITHOUT THE LOSS OF A SINGLE BOMBER.</i> <i>LATER THAT SAME YEAR, AFTER 132 SUCCESSFUL MISSIONS,</i> <i>SMITH MET WITH TROUBLE.</i> <i>THE BOMBER-ESCORT MISSION HE WAS ASSIGNED TO</i> <i>HAD BEEN UNEVENTFUL.</i> <i>WHILE THE PILOTS IN HIS SQUADRON</i> <i>WERE RETURNING TO BASE, THEY WERE SHOOTING AT</i> <i>TRAIN CARS AND AIRPLANES ON THE GROUND.</i> <i>IT WAS FRIDAY THE 13TH OF OCTOBER, 1944.</i> <i>NEAR BALATON, HUNGARY, NOT FAR FROM BUDAPEST,</i> <i>SMITH WAS SHOOTING AT SOME RAIL CARS</i> <i>AND ONE OF THEM EXPLODED.</i> <i>SMITH WAS FORCED TO FLY THROUGH THE CLOUD OF DEBRIS,</i> <i>AND HIS AIRPLANE WAS SEVERELY DAMAGED.</i> <i>AS HE ATTEMPTED TO BAIL OUT, THE PLANE WENT INTO A TAILSPIN</i> <i>AND HIS RIGHT FOOT GOT CAUGHT INSIDE THE COCKPIT.</i> >> THE AIRPLANE WAS ON FIRE, AND I SAID TO MYSELF, SO THIS IS HOW GUYS GO. I WAS CAUGHT IN THE AIRPLANE, AND I WASN'T GOING TO BE ABLE TO MAKE IT. <i>SMITH EVENTUALLY GOT OUT OF HIS AIRPLANE,</i> <i>CAME TO REST IN A TREE,</i> <i>AND WAS CAPTURED BY GERMAN SOLDIERS.</i> <i>AFTER SOME MAJOR SURGERY IN GERMAN HOSPITALS,</i> <i>HE SPENT THE NEXT SEVEN MONTHS IN A PRISON CAMP.</i> <i>IN APRIL OF 1944,</i> <i>27-YEAR-OLD SECOND LIEUTENANT RAY SCHLEIHS OF JOHNSTON</i> <i>WAS STARTING HIS OVERSEAS TOUR OF DUTY.</i> <i>SCHLEIHS HAD JOINED THE ARMY AIR CORPS IN MARCH OF 1942</i> <i>AND WAS NOW PILOTING B-17 FLYING FORTRESSES</i> <i>FROM A BASE IN FRAMLINGHAM, ENGLAND.</i> <i>HE HAD LEFT HIS WIFE, VIVIAN, EARLIER THAT MONTH</i> <i>TO COMPLETE HIS 30 REQUIRED MISSIONS,</i> <i>ALL IN A SPAN OF JUST NINETY DAYS.</i> <i>ON HIS FIRST MISSION, APRIL 18, 1944,</i> <i>SCHLEIHS WAS SENT TO BOMB A HEINKEL AIRCRAFT PLANT</i> <i>25 MILES NORTH OF BERLIN.</i> <i>AS HE APPROACHED THE TARGET, THE AIR BECAME THICK WITH</i> <i>SHRAPNEL FROM EXPLODING ANTIAIRCRAFT SHELLS,</i> <i>WHAT THE BOMBER CREWS CALLED FLAK.</i> >> THE SHELLS, WE COULD SEE THEM BREAKING AROUND OUTSIDE AND HEAR THE SHRAPNEL HIT THE AIRPLANE, YOU KNOW. IT SOUNDED LIKE POPCORN IN A POPPER. <i>EVEN THOUGH SCHLEIHS' AIRPLANE WAS HIT</i> <i>BEFORE GETTING TO THE TARGET,</i> <i>HE WAS ABLE TO DROP HIS BOMB LOAD.</i> <i>UNKNOWN TO THE CREW,</i> <i>A PIECE OF FLAK HAD LODGED IN ONE OF THE ENGINES.</i> <i>AFTER THE BOMBS WERE DROPPED,</i> <i>THE DAMAGED ENGINE BEGAN TO RUN OUT OF CONTROL.</i> >> I DECIDED SOMEWHERE AS WERE MOVING ALONG BETWEEN ORANIENBURG AND HAMBURG THAT I'D LEAVE THE FORMATION, GO OFF TO THE SIDE, AND USE SOMETHING THAT A GUY HAD MENTIONED ABOUT GETTING RID OF A PROP. SO I GOT MY COPILOT ON THE STICK, AND WE PUSHED THE AIRPLANE DOWN -- NOSE DOWN UP TO ABOUT 190, AND THEN WE PULLED BACK. AND WE DID THAT FIVE TIMES. ALL OF A SUDDEN -- I KNEW THE PROP WAS GOING BECAUSE THE NEXT TO THE LAST TIME IT WAS LAYING OVER LIKE THAT, STILL SPINNING OUT THERE. AND IT JUST WENT DOWN AND WENT UNDER. <i>WITH THE PROPELLER GONE,</i> <i>SCHLEIHS WAS ABLE TO RETURN TO ENGLAND AND LAND SAFELY.</i> <i>DURING SOME OF THE BREAKS BETWEEN FLYING MISSIONS,</i> <i>THERE WAS TIME FOR RELAXATION AND, OF COURSE,</i> <i>LETTER WRITING, THE MOST COMMON</i> <i>LONG-DISTANCE COMMUNICATION DEVICE OF THE DAY.</i> <i>BACK IN IOWA, SCHLEIHS' WIFE, VIVIAN,</i> <i>WOULD HURRY HOME FROM HER FACTORY JOB AT</i> <i>THE SOLAR AIRCRAFT COMPANY IN DES MOINES</i> <i>TO SEE IF ANY LETTERS HAD ARRIVED.</i> >> I KNOW THAT I WOULD RUSH HOME FROM WORK EACH DAY, HOPING THERE WOULD BE A LETTER THERE. BUT IF ONE WASN'T THERE, I DIDN'T REALLY WORRY. I FIGURED, WELL, MAYBE NEXT DAY THERE WOULD BE ONE. DEAREST WIFE, TODAY FOUR MORE LETTERS ARRIVED, THREE FROM GOOD OLD USA AND ONE FROM WADE. GUESS, DARLING, YOU HAVE READ QUITE A BIT ABOUT EACH DAY'S DOINGS IN THE LOCAL PAPER AND IT USUALLY INVOLVES US, OF COURSE. THAT'S WHAT WE'RE OVER HERE FOR, TO DO AS MUCH DAMAGE TO THE ENEMY AS POSSIBLE. <i>AFTER TWO YEARS AND SIX MONTHS OF FIGHTING BY U.S. FORCES,</i> <i>ALLIED COMMANDERS GAVE THE ORDER TO BEGIN</i> <i>THE INVASION OF EUROPE.</i> <i>OFFICIALLY CALLED OPERATION OVERLORD,</i> <i>TROOPS WERE TO STORM THE BEACHES OF NORMANDY, FRANCE,</i> <i>ON WHAT WOULD BECOME KNOWN AS D-DAY,</i> <i>JUNE 6, 1944.</i> <i>TECHNICIAN FOURTH GRADE VERLE BUCK,</i> <i>A 21-YEAR-OLD FROM JUBILEE,</i> <i>HAD BEEN DRAFTED IN JANUARY OF 1943</i> <i>AND WAS NOW A PART OF</i> <i>THE 149TH COMBAT ENGINEER BATTALION.</i> <i>AS THE ASSAULT BEGAN, BUCK WAS IN ONE OF THREE LINES</i> <i>OF SPECIALLY DESIGNED BOATS CALLED</i> <i>LANDING CRAFT TANKS, OR LCTs.</i> <i>THE LINES OF LCTs STRETCHED BEYOND THE HORIZON</i> <i>BACK TOWARDS ENGLAND.</i> <i>THEIR DESTINATION WAS OMAHA BEACH,</i> <i>ONE OF FIVE LANDING AREAS ON THE COAST OF NORMANDY.</i> <i>BUCK WAS IN THE FIRST WAVE OF SOLDIERS TO HIT THE BEACH.</i> <i>WHEN THE FRONT RAMP OF THE LANDING CRAFT WENT DOWN,</i> <i>BUCK AND THE OTHER SOLDIERS RACED ASHORE.</i> >> THEY HAD US PINNED DOWN. WE COULDN'T GET OUT OF THERE. YOU'D STICK YOUR HELMET ABOVE; THEY'D SHOOT A HOLE THROUGH IT. IT WAS HECTIC. IT WASN'T ORDERLY. IT WAS TOO MANY OF THE LEADERS GOT SHOT UP, KILLED, WOUNDED. AND EVERYBODY -- THEN AFTER A WHILE, THEN EVERYBODY GOT ORGANIZED A LITTLE BIT AMONGST THEMSELVES AND KNEW THEY HAD TO GO BECAUSE THERE WAS NO WAY YOU COULD SWIM THAT ENGLISH CHANNEL. YOU HAD TO GO. <i>FINALLY, A GROUP OF GERMAN SOLDIERS BLOCKING THEIR ADVANCE</i> <i>WERE KILLED BY GUNFIRE FROM A SHIP IN THE CHANNEL,</i> <i>AND THE MEN WERE ABLE TO MOVE FORWARD.</i> <i>OMAHA BEACH SAW THE HEAVIEST FIGHTING</i> <i>OF ALL THE LANDING ZONES.</i> <i>AN ESTIMATED 34,000 MEN LANDED ON OMAHA BEACH THAT MORNING.</i> <i>AT THE END OF THE BATTLE,</i> <i>2,000 WERE LISTED AS EITHER KILLED, WOUNDED,</i> <i>OR MISSING IN ACTION.</i> <i>THE ATTACKS ON JUNE 6</i> <i>WERE DEVASTATING TO THE AXIS POWERS.</i> <i>GERMAN FORCES WERE EVENTUALLY PUSHED BACK TO</i> <i>THE ARDENNES FOREST IN EASTERN FRANCE.</i> <i>RUTH MILLER, FORMERLY RUTH SMITH,</i> <i>A 22-YEAR-OLD NURSE FROM MARSHALLTOWN,</i> <i>HAD JOINED THE ARMY IN MAY OF 1943.</i> >> THEN THE MORE WE HEARD ABOUT THE WAR, I BEGAN TO THINK THAT MAYBE IT WOULD BE A GOOD PLACE TO BE INVOLVED AND DO MY PART. <i>AFTER BEING COMMISSIONED AS A SECOND LIEUTENANT,</i> <i>MILLER WAS ASSIGNED TO THE 110TH EVACUATION HOSPITAL</i> <i>AND SENT TO EUROPE.</i> <i>THE 110TH'S JOB WAS TO SET UP NEAR THE BATTLEFRONT,</i> <i>BANDAGE WOUNDED SOLDIERS,</i> <i>AND, IF NECESSARY, PERFORM SURGERY.</i> <i>AFTER TREATMENT, THE SOLDIERS WOULD BE TRANSPORTED TO</i> <i>HOSPITALS FARTHER FROM THE BATTLE.</i> <i>THE 110TH WENT TO ENGLAND IN JUNE OF 1944.</i> <i>MILLER'S FIRST ASSIGNMENT WAS THE PENICILLIN TEAM.</i> <i>AT THE TIME, PENICILLIN WAS A NEW MIRACLE DRUG</i> <i>THAT HAD TO BE MIXED JUST BEFORE USE.</i> >> WE JUST WENT AROUND EVERY FOUR HOURS, AND IF THEY WERE SLEEPING, WE HAD TO WAKE THEM UP. AND THE BOYS SAID, "WE'D ALMOST RATHER GO BACK AND FACE A GERMAN THAN YOU PEOPLE COMING AROUND STABBING US EVERY FOUR HOURS." BUT IT SAVED SO MANY LIVES, AND IT WAS GOOD. <i>IN ONE LAST ATTEMPT TO GET ALLIED FORCES OUT OF EUROPE,</i> <i>ADOLPH HITLER ORDERED HIS ARMY TO COUNTERATTACK</i> <i>IN DECEMBER OF 1944.</i> <i>DURING THIS LAST, DESPERATE MOVE,</i> <i>THE GERMAN ARMY PUSHED 60 MILES INTO ALLIED TERRITORY.</i> <i>THE ASSAULT BECAME KNOWN AS THE BATTLE OF THE BULGE.</i> <i>THE NAME WAS GIVEN TO THIS PIVOTAL ENCOUNTER BECAUSE</i> <i>THE FRONT LINE LOOKED LIKE A BULGE ON BATTLEFIELD MAPS.</i> <i>EARLIER, DURING THE MONTH OF SEPTEMBER,</i> <i>THE 110TH EVACUATION HOSPITAL HAD MOVED TO LUXEMBOURG</i> <i>AND SET UP A FIELD HOSPITAL IN THE TOWN OF ESCH.</i> <i>RUTH MILLER, UNAWARE OF THE EVENTS UNFOLDING NEARBY,</i> <i>WAS PREPARING FOR A NEW YEAR'S EVE PARTY,</i> <i>ALONG WITH OTHER NURSES FROM THE 110TH.</i> <i>AS THE MEN WERE BROUGHT IN, MILLER'S BELIEF THAT HER WORK</i> <i>INVOLVED MORE THAN JUST THE TREATMENT OF PHYSICAL WOUNDS</i> <i>WAS REINFORCED.</i> >> THEY WERE SO HAPPY TO SEE SOMEBODY FROM HOME, FROM AMERICA, AND IT BOOSTED THEIR MORALE THAT WE WERE THERE TO TAKE CARE OF THEM. I'M SURE IT MADE THEM THINK OF THEIR OWN GIRLFRIENDS AND WIVES AND MOTHERS TOO. IT WAS JUST REALLY A GOOD FEELING TO KNOW THAT YOU WERE THERE TO HELP THEM OUT AND TRY AND BOOST THEIR MORALE, BECAUSE WHAT THEY WENT THROUGH, SUFFERING WAS AWFUL. THEY SAY WAR IS HELL, BUT I SAY IT'S DEVASTATING, IT'S CRUEL. IT'S JUST TERRIBLE. <i>PRIVATE FIRST CLASS DEAN LETTINGTON,</i> <i>A 19-YEAR-OLD FROM DES MOINES, HAD CROSSED THE ENGLISH CHANNEL</i> <i>WITH OTHER UNITS OF THE 7TH ARMY</i> <i>SEVENTEEN DAYS AFTER D-DAY.</i> <i>AS PART OF THE 559TH FIELD ARTILLERY BATTALION,</i> <i>HE HAD SPENT THE LAST FEW MONTHS</i> <i>FIGHTING ACROSS FRANCE.</i> <i>BY LATE DECEMBER HIS UNIT WAS GETTING CLOSE TO</i> <i>THE GROWING BULGE IN THE LINE.</i> <i>AS THE GERMAN FORCES BEGAN TO PUSH FORWARD,</i> <i>THE ORDER TO WITHDRAW WAS GIVEN.</i> <i>AFTER SPOTTING GERMAN TANKS, THE MEN OF THE 559TH</i> <i>WERE MORE THAN WILLING TO COMPLY WITH THEIR ORDERS</i> <i>AND FALL BACK.</i> >> TO GET OUT OF THERE, WE HAD TO GO BETWEEN TWO BIG STONE BUILDINGS. AND WE ACTUALLY SEEN THOSE TANKS FIRE AT US AS WE WERE SITTING ON THAT TRUCK. THE LORD WAS WITH US. INSTEAD OF FIRING INTO OUR CONVOY, THEY FIRED INTO THESE BUILDINGS, TRYING TO GET A CAVE-IN. SOME OF US GOT SPRINKLED WITH ROCKS FROM THE BUILDING, BUT NOTHING REALLY SEVERE. BUT THEN LATER WE REALIZED THAT, YEAH, THEY DIDN'T WANT TO DESTROY OUR CONVOY; THEY WANTED OUR AMMUNITION, GASOLINE, AND POSSIBLY OUR GUNS IF WE DIDN'T GET THEM EXPLODED. <i>IN JANUARY OF 1945,</i> <i>22-YEAR-OLD JOHN PHILLIPS OF WATERLOO</i> <i>WAS PART OF A GROUP OF REPLACEMENT TROOPS SENT TO</i> <i>THE 106TH INFANTRY DIVISION</i> <i>FIGHTING THE BATTLE OF THE BULGE.</i> >> THE WINTER OF 1944 AND '45 IN EUROPE WAS ONE OF THE WORST WINTERS THEY HAVE EVER HAD. IT WAS BITTERLY COLD. THERE WAS SNOW UP TO OUR KNEES AND OUR HIPS. AND FOR 24 DAYS WE WERE ON THE ATTACK AND NEVER ONCE GOT INSIDE. WE WERE SLEEPING IN FOXHOLES. AND WE HAD NOT BEEN ISSUED WINTER FOOTWEAR. SO WE WERE LOSING AS MANY MEN WITH FROZEN FEET AND FROZEN ANKLES AND FROZEN LEGS AS WE WERE FROM ENEMY GUNFIRE. <i>FIRST LIEUTENANT PHILLIPS,</i> <i>WHO HAD JUST BECOME THE EXECUTIVE OFFICER FOR</i> <i>COMPANY "E" OF THE 424TH INFANTRY REGIMENT,</i> <i>HAD SPENT THE LAST 24 DAYS PUSHING THE GERMAN TROOPS BACK</i> <i>TO WHERE THE BATTLE HAD BEGUN.</i> <i>AFTER TAKING THE TOWN OF MEDEL, BELGIUM,</i> <i>PHILLIPS TOOK A SMALL GROUP OF MEN</i> <i>JUST BEYOND WHERE MOST OF HIS UNIT WAS CAMPED.</i> <i>THERE HE BEGAN DIRECTING THE PLACEMENT OF TWO MACHINE GUNS</i> <i>TO PROTECT AGAINST A GERMAN COUNTERATTACK.</i> >> SUDDENLY WE HAD WALKED INTO A GERMAN AMBUSH. THEY WERE BEHIND US. THEY WERE AROUND US. THEY WERE IN THE TREES. THEY WERE IN THE BUSHES. THEY WERE FIRING FROM EVERY DIRECTION, AND I GOT HIT FIVE TIMES: THREE TIMES IN THE STOMACH; ONE SHATTERED MY LEFT BICEP; AND ONCE IN THIS BIBLE. THE FIFTH BULLET WAS LODGED IN THE BIBLE, AND THAT PROBABLY WAS THE ONE THAT SAVED MY LIFE THAT DAY. <i>PHILLIPS WAS CAPTURED,</i> <i>SENT TO A FRONT-LINE GERMAN FIELD HOSPITAL FOR SURGERY,</i> <i>AND THEN FORCED TO WALK 15 MILES TO A PRISON CAMP</i> <i>NEAR KOBLENZ, GERMANY.</i> >> THE WORST THING THEY DID WAS TO HOLD A PISTOL TO MY HEAD AND TELL ME, "YOU KNOW, WE CAN SHOOT YOU AT THIS POINT AND NOBODY WILL EVER KNOW WHAT HAPPENED TO YOU." AND THAT WAS ACTUALLY OUR WORST FEAR THAT THEY WOULD DO THIS, BECAUSE NOBODY KNEW WHERE I WAS AND THEY COULD HAVE SHOT ME AND BURIED ME AND NOBODY EVER WOULD HAVE KNOWN WHAT HAPPENED TO ME. <i>AFTER FIVE DAYS, AND STILL SUFFERING FROM HIS WOUNDS,</i> <i>PHILLIPS WAS LOADED INTO</i> <i>A CROWDED BOXCAR AND SENT TO HAMMELBURG, GERMANY.</i> <i>HE WAS STILL WEARING THE SAME BULLET-RIDDLED UNIFORM.</i> <i>WHEN PHILLIPS ARRIVED, HE JOINED 1,500 OTHER OFFICERS</i> <i>BEING HELD IN ONE AREA OF THE CAMP.</i> <i>WITH NO TASKS OR ODD JOBS TO PERFORM,</i> <i>THE TIME PASSED SLOWLY.</i> <i>MEALS TOTALED 500 CALORIES PER DAY</i> <i>AND INCLUDED WEAK COFFEE, A GRASS-BASED SOUP,</i> <i>AND BLACK BREAD MADE MOSTLY FROM SAWDUST.</i> >> THE MORALE WAS TERRIBLY LOW. EVERYBODY WAS -- THEY WERE SICK AND -- ABOUT ALL THEY DID, 1,500 -- CAN YOU IMAGINE 1,500 AMERICAN OFFICERS SITTING AROUND ALL DAY LONG, AND MOST OF THE TIME THEY WERE MAKING UP RECIPES AND MENUS, BECAUSE THEY WERE ALL GOING TO START RESTAURANTS WHEN THEY GOT BACK BECAUSE THEY WANTED TO HAVE A LOT OF FOOD AROUND. <i>MEANWHILE, AT THE PALAWAN ISLAND PRISON CAMP,</i> <i>GLENN MCDOLE HAD BEEN WORKING AS A SLAVE LABORER</i> <i>IN SQUALID CONDITIONS FOR THREE YEARS.</i> <i>ALONG WITH THE OTHER MEN IN THE CAMP,</i> <i>HE HAD ENDURED LACK OF FOOD, PRIMITIVE LIVING CONDITIONS,</i> <i>AND CONSTANT BEATINGS FROM THE GUARDS.</i> >> I'VE SEEN SOME FELLAS TAKE BEATINGS THAT -- CITIZENS OF TODAY CANNOT IMAGINE WHAT KIND OF BEATINGS THEY TOOK. THEY TOOK GREAT PRIDE IN BEATING YOU. WE HAD ONE GUY IN THE CAMP CALLED<i> THE BULL.</i> HE WAS A JAPANESE THAT LOOKED LIKE A SUMO WRESTLER. HE TOOK GREAT PLEASURE IN TRYING TO SEE HOW QUICK HE COULD KNOCK A MAN OUT BY HITTING HIM IN THE HEAD. <i>IN LATE 1944, FEARING AN AMERICAN INVASION,</i> <i>JAPANESE COMMANDERS MADE THE DECISION</i> <i>TO KILL THE PRISONERS IN PALAWAN.</i> <i>IN NOVEMBER MCDOLE AND THE OTHER PRISONERS</i> <i>WERE ORDERED TO DIG THREE TRENCHES</i> <i>AND SEVERAL PITS AS BOMB SHELTERS.</i> <i>WHAT THE PRISONERS WERE ACTUALLY DOING</i> <i>WAS DIGGING THEIR OWN GRAVES.</i> <i>ON DECEMBER 14</i> <i>A FALSE AIR RAID WAS SIGNALED BY THE JAPANESE GUARDS</i> <i>AND THE EXECUTIONS BEGAN.</i> >> THEN THEY CAME INTO THE CAMP HOLLERING, "GET IN YOUR TRENCHES! GET IN YOUR TRENCHES! THE AMERICANS ARE COMING! THE AMERICANS ARE COMING"! AS HYSTERICAL AS THEY WERE, WE KNEW WE BETTER GET DOWN THERE CALM. WHEN WE GOT DOWN IN THERE, I STOOD IN THE OPENING OF OUR TRENCH AND KEPT THE MEN INFORMED WHAT WAS HAPPENING. NEXT THING YOU SEE, THIS BUNCH OF JAPANESE COME INTO THE PRISON CAMP CARRYING BUCKETS AND TORCHES. THEY CAME UP TO TRENCH "A" AND IN WENT THE BUCKETS OF GAS AND TORCHES, AND OUT CAME THIS GUY SCREAMING AND HOLLERING. HUMAN TORCHES. <i>DURING PREVIOUS AIR RAIDS, THE MEN IN MCDOLE'S TRENCH</i> <i>HAD BEEN PLANNING AN ESCAPE THROUGH A TUNNEL THEY'D DUG.</i> <i>THE TUNNEL LED TO THE EDGE OF A CLIFF</i> <i>AND A 60-FOOT DROP TO THE BEACH BELOW.</i> <i>WHEN THE JAPANESE THREW THE GASOLINE INTO THE FIRST TRENCH,</i> <i>MCDOLE, ALONG WITH ALL THE MEN IN HIS SHELTER,</i> <i>ESCAPED THROUGH THE TUNNEL.</i> <i>AFTER SEVERAL DAYS AND NIGHTS OF EVADING CAPTURE,</i> <i>MCDOLE SWAM 7 MILES ACROSS OPEN WATER</i> <i>TO ANOTHER PART OF THE ISLAND.</i> <i>HE WAS EVENTUALLY FOUND BY FILIPINO NATIVES</i> <i>AND EVACUATED IN JANUARY OF 1945.</i> <i>ONLY 11 OF THE 150 PRISONERS IN THE CAMP THAT DAY</i> <i>ESCAPED WITH THEIR LIVES.</i> <i>ONCE SURVIVORS WERE PICKED UP BY U.S. FORCES,</i> <i>PLANS WERE MADE TO RESCUE THE OTHER PRISONERS OF WAR</i> <i>HELD BY THE JAPANESE.</i> <i>IN EARLY 1945, 20-YEAR-OLD GALEN KITTLESON FROM ST. ANSGAR</i> <i>WAS STATIONED IN THE PHILIPPINES</i> <i>AS PART OF AN ELITE UNIT CALLED THE ALAMO SCOUTS.</i> <i>THE SCOUTS WERE MADE UP OF SMALL, HIGHLY TRAINED UNITS</i> <i>THAT OPERATED BEHIND JAPANESE BATTLE LINES</i> <i>GATHERING INFORMATION ABOUT ENEMY FORCES.</i> <i>KITTLESON'S UNIT WAS SELECTED TO CARRY OUT RECONNAISSANCE</i> <i>ON THE CABANATUAN PRISON CAMP</i> <i>IN ANTICIPATION OF A RESCUE ATTEMPT.</i> <i>THE CAMP WAS 30 MILES BEHIND ENEMY LINES.</i> >> I WAS REALLY THE FIRST ONE TO SEE IT, BUT IT WAS ACROSS AN OPEN FIELD TOO, BECAUSE THE JAPANESE HAD THOSE PRISONERS GROWING STUFF OUT THERE FOR THE CAMP. <i>WITH MEMBERS OF THE 6TH RANGER BATTALION,</i> <i>AN ATTACK WAS PLANNED,</i> <i>AND ON JANUARY 30, 1945, AS THE SUN WENT DOWN,</i> <i>THE BATTLE BEGAN.</i> >> AND WHEN WE GOT TO -- RIGHT CLOSE TO THE FENCE, A GONG STARTED GOING, AND WE THOUGHT, MY GOD, THEY KNOW WE'RE HERE. BUT IT WAS SAILORS IN THAT POWs THAT HAD EACH NIGHT -- THEY'D RUN THE 8:00, 7:00, YOU KNOW, LIKE WE DO ON SHIPS. I KNOW IT WAS NOISY AS ALL HECK RIGHT WHEN THEY ATTACKED IT, OF COURSE, BECAUSE THE RANGERS REALLY DONE A SUPER JOB. THEY GOT THAT GATE OPEN AND THOSE SUCKERS REALLY POURED IN THERE. I DIDN'T FIRE A ROUND THERE BECAUSE I DIDN'T HAVE TO. MY JOB WAS TO GET THOSE PRISONERS TO THE RIVER, SO I GUIDED THEM. SOMETIMES YOU HAD TO ALMOST GRAB A HOLD OF THEM TO KEEP THEM GOING THE RIGHT DIRECTION, BUT THEY GOT THERE. <i>PFC KITTLESON WAS AWARDED A BRONZE STAR</i> <i>FOR HIS PARTICIPATION IN THE RAID.</i> <i>ON THE DAY OF THE RAID, MALCOLM AMOS WAS ALREADY</i> <i>PLANNING HIS ESCAPE FROM CABANATUAN.</i> <i>WHEN THE FIGHTING BEGAN, AMOS THOUGHT IT WAS</i> <i>FILIPINO GUERRILLAS FIRING AT THE JAPANESE GUARDS.</i> >> THE BULLETS STARTED TO GO THROUGH THE SHACK WE WAS IN, SO WE GOT OUT OF THERE, AND THERE WAS A DITCH OUTSIDE. THEN ALL AT ONCE IT QUIT -- IT QUIT FIRING. THERE WAS SOME GUYS RUNNING AROUND THERE. THEY SAID, "WE'RE THE RANGERS. WE'RE GETTING YOU OUT OF HERE AND GOING TO THE MAIN GATE." <i>WITH THE HELP OF FILIPINO CITIZENS,</i> <i>511 MEN WERE RESCUED AND TAKEN TO THE AMERICAN LINES.</i> <i>PRIVATE FIRST CLASS HENRY LEONARD,</i> <i>A 20-YEAR-OLD DRAFTEE FROM RYAN,</i> <i>WAS SENT TO FIGHT IN THE PHILIPPINES IN JANUARY OF 1945.</i> <i>HE WAS ASSIGNED TO THE BUSH MASTERS,</i> <i>A GROUP OF NATIONAL GUARDSMEN FROM ARIZONA,</i> <i>OFFICIALLY KNOWN AS THE 158TH REGIMENTAL COMBAT TEAM.</i> >> MOSQUITOES WERE TERRIBLE. WE WERE ALWAYS COVERED UP WITH MOSQUITO DOPE. WE'D JUST PUT IT RIGHT ON OUR CLOTHES AND ON OUR FACE. WE HAD A BATH IF WE CAME TO A RIVER. OTHER THAN THAT, YOU WORE THE SAME CLOTHES. YOU WORE THE SAME CLOTHES ANYWAY. YOU WASHED THEM IN THE RIVER IF YOU HAD A -- UNLESS YOU WENT BACK TO A REST AREA, YOU WASHED THEM IN THE RIVER AND HUNG THEM ON A BUSH. THAT'S THE WAY YOU LIVED. <i>DURING ONE MISSION, PFC LEONARD WAS PUT</i> <i>INTO A SQUAD WITH CORPORAL SCHMIDT AND PFC YOUNG.</i> <i>LEONARD DIDN'T EVEN KNOW THE FIRST NAMES OF</i> <i>THE TWO YOUNG MEN HE WAS FIGHTING WITH THAT DAY.</i> <i>AS THE MEN WENT INTO ACTION, SCHMIDT BEGAN TO POINT AT</i> <i>PLACES WHERE HE BELIEVED ENEMY SOLDIERS WERE HIDING.</i> <i>A JAPANESE SNIPER WATCHING THE ACTION SHOT AND KILLED HIM.</i> <i>LEONARD AND YOUNG TOOK COVER BEHIND A HUT.</i> >> WELL, SCHMITTY WAS OUT THERE AND SCHMITTY WASN'T GONNA STAY OUT THERE. SO ALL I SAID TO YOUNG WAS, "LET'S GO GET HIM," WE SHUCKED OFF OUR FIELD PACKS AND OUR AMMUNITION BELTS AND OUR RIFLES. WE TOOK OFF AND RAN OUT THERE AND GRABBED HIM UNDER THE ARMS AND DRAGGED HIM BACK BEHIND THE HUT. BECAUSE WE HAD SORT OF AN UNSPOKEN LAW AMONGST US, LIKE, I GUESS YOU WOULD CALL IT A BAND OF BROTHERS. THE PEOPLE YOU MEET THERE AND ARE IN COMBAT WITH ARE CLOSER THAN ANYBODY YOU'RE EVER GONNA MEET AGAIN. BUT WE WERE NEVER GONNA LEAVE ANYBODY BEHIND. THEY WERE ALWAYS GONNA GO HOME. WHETHER THEY WERE DEAD OR ALIVE, THEIR BODY WENT HOME. AND SCHMITTY WENT HOME. <i>HENRY LEONARD WAS AWARDED THE BRONZE STAR</i> <i>FOR BRINGING CORPORAL SCHMIDT'S BODY BACK FROM THE FRONT.</i> <i>BETWEEN BATTLES, SOLDIERS HAD A LIMITED AMOUNT OF TIME</i> <i>TO THINK ABOUT LOVED ONES, HOME, OR THE FUTURE.</i> <i>BUT ON THE BATTLEFRONT,</i> <i>THEY WERE CAREFUL NOT TO DWELL TOO LONG ON ANYTHING OTHER THAN</i> <i>FIGHTING THE ENEMY.</i> >> IN MY CASE I WAS A CATHOLIC AND I WOULD SAY THE ROSARY. AND THEN YOU MIGHT THINK OCCASIONALLY ABOUT, GOD, I WISH I WAS HOME AND I WAS MARRIED, NORMAL PEOPLE THINGS. BUT THAT DIDN'T LAST VERY LONG BECAUSE YOU HAD TO HAVE YOUR ATTENTION ALL THE TIME ON THE TRAIL OR WHAT'S OUT IN FRONT OF YOU. YOU DIDN'T HAVE MUCH TIME TO THINK ABOUT ANYTHING ELSE BUT STAYING ALIVE. <i>NEAR THE END OF APRIL 1945, DEAN LETTINGTON'S UNIT</i> <i>HAD BEEN MOVING ACROSS GERMANY WITHOUT MUCH DIFFICULTY.</i> <i>AS HIS ARTILLERY COMPANY APPROACHED MUNICH,</i> <i>THEY WERE STOPPED AND ORDERED TO AWAIT INSTRUCTIONS.</i> <i>THE DACHAU CONCENTRATION CAMP, LOCATED NEARBY,</i> <i>HAD JUST BEEN LIBERATED.</i> >> SO THEN THEY LET US GO IN AND SEE WHAT TRAGEDIES WE SEEN. AND IT DIDN'T TAKE LONG TO GET ME INFURIATED. I WAS JUST CRAZY MAD. AND I COME TO THIS ONE BUILDING WHERE THE PRISONERS BILLET. THERE WAS THREE OF US THERE TOGETHER, AND I JUST KICKED THE DOOR IN. I DIDN'T BOTHER TO OPEN IT; I JUST KICKED IT IN. IN THE FAR RIGHT-HAND CORNER OF THAT BUILDING I SEEN SOMETHING MOVE, SO I IMMEDIATELY HAD MY CARBINE AND I EASED MY WAY DOWN THERE. THERE WAS A LITTLE OLD PERSON JUST SCRUNCHED WAY DOWN IN THE CORNER JUST SHAKING LIKE A LEAF. THEN HE RECOGNIZED THE AMERICAN UNIFORMS, AND IT CALMED HIM DOWN A LITTLE BIT. <i>ON MAY 8, 1945, GERMANY SURRENDERED.</i> <i>ON AUGUST 6 AN ATOMIC BOMB WAS DROPPED</i> <i>ON THE JAPANESE CITY OF HIROSHIMA.</i> <i>ON AUGUST 9 A SECOND ATOMIC BOMB</i> <i>WAS DROPPED ON THE CITY OF NAGASAKI.</i> <i>THE UNPRECEDENTED DESTRUCTION HELPED BRING ABOUT THE</i> <i>UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER OF THE JAPANESE IMPERIAL GOVERNMENT</i> <i>ON AUGUST 15, 1945.</i> <i>ON SEPTEMBER 2, 1945,</i> <i>REPRESENTATIVES OF THE JAPANESE IMPERIAL GOVERNMENT SURRENDERED</i> <i>TO GENERAL DOUGLAS MACARTHUR</i> <i>ON BOARD THE BATTLESHIP U.S.S. MISSOURI IN TOKYO BAY.</i> <i>HENRY LEONARD, WHO HAD BEEN APPOINTED TO</i> <i>MACARTHUR'S HONOR GUARD IN MAY, WAS NOT ON DUTY THAT DAY,</i> <i>BUT HE WAS AT THE CEREMONY.</i> <i>ON BOARD ONE OF THE SHIPS NEXT TO THE MISSOURI,</i> <i>LEONARD HAD CLIMBED TO ONE OF THE HIGHEST SPOTS POSSIBLE</i> <i>TO GET A BETTER VIEW.</i> >> I THOUGHT, MAN ALIVE, I'M STILL ALIVE AND I'M GOING TO STAY THAT WAY PROBABLY, UNLESS I GET RUN OVER BY A JEEP, BECAUSE WE DON'T HAVE TO TAKE THIS DAMN PLACE. I DON'T THINK WE HAD ENOUGH MEN IN AMERICA ANYMORE TO TAKE JAPAN OR KYOTO OR ANY OF THOSE ISLANDS. I DON'T THINK WE HAD THE POWER, BECAUSE THEY WOULD HAVE -- THE WOMEN AND CHILDREN AND EVERYBODY ELSE WOULD HAVE HAD SHARPENED BAMBOO POLES, IF NOTHING ELSE. THEY WOULD HAVE FOUGHT US TO THE LAST MAN. <i>AFTER THREE YEARS, EIGHT MONTHS, AND EIGHT DAYS,</i> <i>THE FIGHTING FOR AMERICAN FORCES WAS OVER.</i> <i>IN THE UNITED STATES, THERE WAS DANCING IN THE STREETS,</i> <i>LONG PARADES, AND COLOSSAL VICTORY CELEBRATIONS.</i> <i>SOON THE FOCUS COULD CHANGE FROM SACRIFICING TO REBUILDING.</i> <i>SIXTEEN MILLION AMERICANS HAD BEEN SENT TO WAR;</i> <i>406,000 NEVER RETURNED.</i> >> IT WAS A LONG TIME BEFORE I WAS ABLE TO HEAR TAPS AT ANY MEMORIAL SERVICE OR HEAR TAPS AT ALL, BECAUSE OF THE MEMORIES I HAD WITH THAT, BUT I HAVE OVERCOME THAT. BUT IT JUST BRINGS BACK THOSE RUSH OF MEMORIES. FUNDING FOR<i> IOWA'S WORLD WAR II STORIES</i> HAS BEEN PROVIDED BY<i> FRIENDS,</i> THE IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION FOUNDATION... GENERATIONS OF FAMILIES AND FRIENDS WHO FEEL PASSIONATE ABOUT IOWA PUBLIC TELEVISION PROGRAMMING; AT ROCKWELL COLLINS WE'RE PROUD TO SUPPORT IOWA'S VETERANS. GREAT IDEAS ARE CREATED WHEN WE WORK TOGETHER TO BUILD A HERITAGE OF INNOVATION AND CONNECT WITH OUR COMMUNITIES. WE NEVER FORGET THE FORTUNES OF SO MANY DEPEND ON OUR PERFORMANCE. ROCKWELL COLLINS; THE PRINCIPAL FINANCIAL GROUP, A PROUD SUPPORTER OF THE MEN AND WOMEN WHO HAVE SACRIFICED FOR AMERICA AND THE WORLD. MAY THEIR CONTRIBUTIONS NEVER BE FORGOTTEN.

Contents

History

The 133rd Field Artillery Regiment's lineage is carried by 1st Battalion, 133rd Field Artillery, a unit of the 72nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team, and 3rd Battalion, 133rd Field Artillery, a unit of the 56th Infantry Brigade Combat Team, both brigades of the 36th Infantry Division.

From August 2008 to August 2009 Charlie Battery deployed as a filler unit to 3rd BN 133rd Filed Artillery (56th IBCT) in support of Iraqi Freedom. C Battery was based out of COB Adder, Tallil, Iraq carrying out the mission of Convoy Security. During the deployment, C Battery conducted over 120 Convoy Security Missions. One member of the battery was awarded the Purple Heart for wounds sustained. C Battery redeployed in August 2009 and was returned to its organic Battalion. In 2011 Charlie Battery was inactivated, while 4th 133rd was reorganized into a HIMARS Battalion.

In October 2009, Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, Alpha Battery, and Bravo Battery from 1st Battalion, 133d Field Artillery were mobilized for service in Operation Iraqi Freedom as part of the 72nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team. After completing training at Camp McGregor, NM as detainee guard force units, HHB and A Battery were deployed to Camp Cropper, Iraq, with B Battery being sent to Camp Taji, Iraq. The brigade completed operations in Iraq in July and August 2010 and redeployed to the United States, with A Battery being the last unit in the brigade to return home.

Lineage

Organized 20 September 1899 in the Texas Volunteer Guard at El Paso as the Border Rifles and assigned to the 4th Infantry Regiment as Company B

(Texas Volunteer Guard redesignated 1 July 1903 as the Texas National Guard)

Expanded 18 July 1905 to form Companies B and K, 4th Infantry Regiment (Company B—hereafter separate lineage)

Company K, 4th Infantry Regiment, mustered into federal service 18 May 1916; mustered out of federal service 24 March 1917

Mustered into federal service 11 April 1917; drafted into federal service 5 August 1917

Reorganized and redesignated 15 October 1917 as Company G, 144th Infantry, an element of the 36th Division

Demobilized 21 June 1919 at Camp Bowie, Texas

Expanded, reorganized, and federally recognized 11 May 1922 in the Texas National Guard as the 2d Battalion, 141st Infantry, an element of the 36th Division (later redesignated as the 36th Infantry Division), with headquarters at El Paso

Inducted into federal service 25 November 1940 at home stations

Inactivated 22 December 1945 at Camp Patrick Henry, Virginia

Converted (less Companies F and G), reorganized, and federally recognized 2 December 1946 as the 696th Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion, with headquarters at El Paso; concurrently relieved from assignment to the 36th Infantry Division (Companies F and G, 141st Infantry-hereafter separate lineages)

Redesignated 1 May 1949 as the 136th Antiaircraft Artillery Automatic Weapons Battalion and assigned to the 36th Infantry Division

Redesignated 1 October 1953 as the 136th Antiaricraft Artillery Battalion

Consolidated 16 March 1959 with the 132d (see ANNEX 1), 133d (see ANNEX 2), and 155th (see ANNEX 3) Field Artillery Battalions to form the 133d Artillery, a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System, to consist of the 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, and 5th Howitzer Battalions, elements of the 36th Infantry Division

Reorganized 1 March 1963 to consist of the 2d, 3d, 4th, and 5th Howitzer Battalions, elements of the 36th Infantry Division

Reorganized 1 November 1965 to consist of the 2d, 3d, and 5th Battalions, elements of the 36th Infantry Division, and the 4th Battalion, an element of the 36th Infantry Brigade

Reorganized 15 January 1968 to consist of the 1st Battalion, an element of the 71st Airborne Brigade, the 3d Battalion, and the 4th Battalion, an element of the 36th Infantry Brigade

Redesignated 1 May 1972 as the 133d Field Artillery

Reorganized 1 November 1973 to consist of the 1st, 3d, and 4th Battalions, elements of the 49th Armored Division

Reorganized 1 September 1979 to consist of the 1st, 3d, and 4th Battalions and Battery E, elements of the 49th Armored Division

Withdrawn 4 March 1987 from the Combat Arms Regimental System and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System

Reorganized 1 September 1999 to consist of the 1st, 3d, and 4th Battalions, elements of the 49th Armored Division

  • ANNEX 1

Constituted 5 May 1917 in the Texas National Guard as the 1st Battalion, 2d Field Artillery

Organized June–July 1917 in north central Texas

Drafted into federal service 5 August 1917

Reorganized and redesignated 15 October 1917 as the 1st Battalion, 131st Field Artillery, an element of the 36th Division

Demobilized 2 April 1919 at Camp Travis, Texas

Reorganized in 1922 in the Texas National Guard as the 1st Battalion, 131st Field Artillery, an element of the 36th Division; Headquarters federally recognized 29 October 1922 at Plainview

Inducted into federal service 25 November 1940 at home stations

Reorganized and redesignated 9 February 1942 as the 131st Field Artillery Battalion, an element of the 36th Infantry Division

Inactivated 26 December 1945 at Camp Patrick Henry, Virginia

Expanded 2 July 1946 to form the 131st and 132d Field Artillery Battalions, elements of the 36th Infantry Division (131st Field Artillery Battalion-hereafter separate lineage)

132d Field Artillery Battalion reorganized and federally recognized 10 July 1947 in western Texas with headquarters at Lubbock

  • ANNEX 2

Organized in 1922 in the Texas National Guard from new and existing units as the 2d Battalion, 132d Field Artillery, an element of the 36th Division; Headquarters federally recognized 28 January 1923 at Corsicana

Inducted into federal service 25 November 1940 at home stations

Reorganized and redesignated 9 February 1942 as the 155th Field Artillery Battalion, an element of the 36th Infantry Division

Redesignated 5 November 1942 as the 133d Field Artillery Battalion

Inactivated 18 December 1945 at Camp Patrick Henry, Virginia

Reorganized and federally recognized 12 May 1947 with headquarters at Corsicana

  • ANNEX 3

Constituted 5 May 1917 in the Texas National Guard as the 1st Field Artillery Organized 4 June 1917 with headquarters at Dallas

Drafted into federal service 5 August 1917

Redesignated 15 October 1917 as the 133d Field Artillery and assigned to the 36th Division

Demobilized 2 April 1919 at Camp Bowie, Texas

Reorganized 1 June 1936 in the Texas National Guard as the 133d Field Artillery and assigned to the 36th Division; Headquarters federally recognized 9 July 1936 at San Antonio

Inducted into federal service 25 November 1940 at home stations

Regiment broken up 9 February 1942 and its elements reorganized and redesignated as follows:

Headquarters disbanded

1st Battalion as the 133d Field Artillery Battalion, an element of the 36th Infantry Division

(Headquarters Battery consolidated with the Pioneer Company, 626th Tank Destroyer Battalion; 2d Battalion as the 2d Battalion, 202d Field Artillery—hereafter separate lineages)

133d Field Artillery Battalion redesignated 5 November 1942 as the 155th Field Artillery Battalion

Inactivated 18 December 1945 at Camp Patrick Henry, Virginia

Expanded 2 July 1946 to form the 155th Field Artillery Battalion, an element of the 36th Infantry Division, and the 749th Armored Ordnance Battalion, an element of the 49th Armored Division (749th Armored Ordnance Battalion—hereafter separate lineages)

155th Field Artillery Battalion consolidated with Headquarters, 133d Field Artillery (reconstituted 25 August 1945 in the Texas National Guard), and consolidated unit reorganized and federally recognized 10 February 1947 in central Texas as the 155th Field Artillery Battalion with headquarters at New Braunfels

Distinctive unit insignia

  • Description

A Gold color metal and enamel device 1 1/8 inches (2.86 cm) in height overall consisting of a shield blazoned: Gules, a bend Azure fimbriated Or between a fleur-de-lis and a Mexican sombrero of the last. Attached below the shield a Gold motto scroll inscribed “DUM SPIRAMUS TUEBIMUR” in Blue letters.

  • Symbolism

The shield is red for Artillery. The blue bend, taken from the Dallas family coat of arms, represents the descent of the organization from the Dallas Artillery Company, earlier known as the Queen City Guards. The sombrero is symbolic of the Mexican Border; the fleur-de-lis, service in France.

  • Background

The distinctive unit insignia was originally approved for the 133d Field Artillery Regiment on 11 August 1937. It was redesignated for the 133d Field Artillery Battalion on 7 October 1942. It was redesignated for the 155th Field Artillery Battalion on 23 February 1943. The insignia was redesignated for the 749th Armored Ordnance Maintenance Battalion on 14 June 1951. It was redesignated for the 949th Armored Ordnance Maintenance Battalion on 17 August 1955. The insignia was redesignated for the 133d Field Artillery Regiment on 18 January 1989.

Coat of arms

Blazon

  • Shield

Gules, a bend Azure fimbriated Or between a fleur-de-lis and a Mexican sombrero of the last.

  • Crest

That for the regiments and separate battalions of the Texas Army National Guard: On a wreath of the colors Or and Gules a mullet Argent encircled by a garland of live oak and olive Proper. Motto DUM SPIRAMUS TUEBIMUR (While We Breathe, We Shall Defend).

Symbolism

  • Shield

The shield is red for Artillery. The blue bend, taken from the Dallas family coat of arms, represents the descent of the organization from the Dallas Artillery Company, earlier known as the Queen City Guards. The sombrero is symbolic of the Mexican Border; the fleur-de-lis, service in France.

  • Crest

The crest is that of the Texas Army National Guard.

Background

The coat of arms was originally approved for the 133d Field Artillery Regiment on 24 May 1937. It was redesignated for the 133d Field Artillery Battalion on 10 October 1942. It was redesignated for the 155th Field Artillery Battalion on 23 February 1943. The insignia was redesignated for the 749th Armored Ordnance Maintenance Battalion on 14 June 1951. It was redesignated for the 949th Armored Ordnance Maintenance Battalion on 17 August 1955. The insignia was redesignated for the 133d Field Artillery Regiment on 18 January 1989.

Current configuration

  • 1st Battalion 133rd Field Artillery Regiment (United States)
  • 3rd Battalion 133rd Field Artillery Regiment (United States)
  • 4th Battalion 133rd Field Artillery Regiment (United States) (HIMARS)

See also

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Army Institute of Heraldry document "133rd Field Artillery Regiment".

External links

This page was last edited on 16 December 2018, at 17:59
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