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12th century in Wales

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the particular significance of the century 1101 - 1200 to Wales and its people.

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Transcription

Cheers Ralf (Ellis) Hope we get the sound right, are you ok with it? Right. First of all thank you all for coming and I'm very pleased to be here myself. I began research in 1976 on the topic of ancient British history. Now prior to that I took a degree in economics at a university and I worked in industry and I got to, well it's no exaggeration, quite a high level and I worked mainly in steel works and then into the rebuilding and reconstruction of shipyards and there are numbers or there were numbers in the pre-computer age of planning techniques because in a shipyard you have thousands of men doing millions of man hours doing hundreds of different tasks with thousands of different bits in dozens of departments and they all have to come together at the right time in the right places with all the right tools and all the right services to make the ship. British shipyards in the years I worked were doing that. They were making one ship and the Japanese eleven, that's how bad it had got. So I did some pretty high level jobs, the shipyards had a work in. The workers occupied the yards and threw the management out. It was insurrection. They should have sent the army in. Instead they sent me and I got them going again. I dealt with the rebuilding of shipyards in Italy for warships and so on and so on and I'd come to the point where I was absolutely fed up with it and I had enough money and my colleague who's family I know came to me one day and said "You know, you've got a hobby of history, I've got this little notation in this old book that says Elwiri from the north, Newcastle, married a Welsh king named Morgan." So I said that's right Elwiri's the daughter of King Rheged and she married Morgan the son of Arthur II. He looked at me and said "Arthur who?" I said Arthur II. Because you see, they were teaching King Arthur in the Welsh schools until 1924 in some cases and I had a school book of that year, King Tewdrig, King Meurig, King Arthur. Everybody knew. Chris Barber up in Llanfoist he had two books, different ones from different schools telling all about these kings. Wales is not a principality it's a kingdom and there were 80 successive kings. So I thought it out and he said do you think we could find this King Arthur and I said I don't see any problem, they've all got notations on where they're buried in the records. Somebody could go into them, and that's how we began. The project expanded because it took no time at all to realise that somebody since around the year 1714 had been very busy abandoning the ancient history of England and Wales. They'd been demolishing it, obliterating it and getting rid of it. The ancient histories of England and of Wales tell that the first migration into our country took place around 1500 BC and someone named Albyne was sent here from Syria believe it or not. Now this was laughed at and jeered at but the story goes that Albyne's daddy is a fella named Diocletian and Diocletian had 33 countries or provinces under his rule and some of his daughters ruled some of these provinces, also he had a big enemy named Lebanor who caused him great trouble but Lebanor finally married one of his daughters. Can't possibly be true; throw it out (the establishment say). In 1922-1934 Leonard Woolley magnificent scholar and archaeologist dug up the necropolis, graveyards of the 3rd dynasty of Ur in ancient Syria. The 3rd dynasty of Ur was probably the most powerful of an ancient era around this 1500 BC period and the number one king of the dynasty was none other than Dungi, Diocletian and Woolley discovered that this guy had ruled 33 provinces. Wow. He also made his daughter rulers of provinces but better still his kingdom was attacked by the first king of the Hittites named Lebanor and afterwards Lebanor married one of his daughters. Now the funny thing is, how would the English and the Welsh have this ancient tale, certainly around William the Conqueror's time and earlier and Woolley digs up the story which is identical in 1922-1934. The tomb of Diocletian was a palace two stories above ground once upon a time, two stories underground, steps going down to it. Nobody heard much about it because at the same time Howard Carter found Tutankhamun and the whole thing got swept aside with the whole euphoria about young King Tut. But in the votive area, the religious area in one of these underground rooms there was a table of metal on it was little reclining bulls and standing ones and sheep and balls. Doesn't sound much. Just before the war they dug up the Lexton Mound in Colchester. King Kinvelin is supposed to have been buried there. In the Lexton Mound they found a votive area and there was a metal table and on it were little bulls and little sheep and balls. They're in the museum in Colchester. Identical. Absolutely spot on identical. Now when you find this sort of thing you have to have a little thought, now maybe there is something in this history. Now I now that the archaeologists fiddle with radiocarbon dating and we'll come to that later, and they do. In 1939 they found 3 ships in the Humber in the mud and they wow Viking ships...got to be! About 10 years ago somebody had a bright idea of carbon dating some of the wood. Not Viking. The date they came up with was 1550 BC. Now that's about the time we were getting invaded by these people from Syria. So they had to get out of this one and said they're Egyptian ships. They don't look anything like ancient Egyptian ships, nothing at all. They subsequently; I'm informed by Ralph Ellis re-dated the carbon dating. What the archaeologists are doing is and it's quite illegal and corrupt, they're taking every ancient date before 600 BC, dividing it by 80 and multiplying by 100 and they do that to cover-up the fact that Egyptian ancient history is in a right old mess and the dates are wrong. I've written to some of them and said why don't you divide by 95 and multiply by 40 or why you don't divide by 67 and multiply by 200? Why this number? But it's the one that gets them into the "right" bracket and you've only got to do a few calculations yourself to see how it works. So we were into ancient British history and we realised we were in, in a big way. Some of the early historians of the Norman era, William of Malmesbury and Matthew of Westminster about 1130 and 1120; they made lists of all the people who had come into Britain over the history. Among them they listed the Ealde Cyrcenas. The Ealde Cyrcenas are the Old Syrians. We're back to Albyne again and he said where they lived. So if anybody ever worried or thought how did the name Surrey come about, there you go. Surrey > Suri/Syria. If you read Homer's second book, The Odyssey, it's attributed to him, Ulysses comes home from his travels, he says give me some bale, he'd been looking after his farm for him. He says "Where did you come from originally?" He said "I come from a great big island out in the western ocean", Britain probably, "it's called Syria." So the idea of this Albyne thing, what I'm trying to get at is, our histories our well founded. The second migration into the UK is the Brutus migration and Brutus is a great-grandson of Anchises and grandson of Aeneas of Troy. Now we've got a problem because Brutus is supposed to come here about 150 years after the fall of Troy and he arrives in 500 BC. Now that would make the fall of Troy around 650 BC and we all know that the Greeks with their mathematical calculations they decided the Trojan War took place sometime between 1134 and 1335 BC. They don't know quite when and they got there by mathematical calculation. In Rome there was a mighty row before the Christian era because Horace and Virgil and others were saying that Roman history starts with Aeneas building the walls of Rome, really, after Romanus and therefore the Trojan War is 650 BC. The Hebrews thought the Trojan War was 650 BC, read Josephus, he thinks Moses is around 1700 and he says the Trojan War is a thousand years after Moses. The Franks had a history of their kings going back to Antenor of Troy. So there we go again, 650 BC. Funny thing is, if you read Greek and other histories they say after the Trojan War a strange dark period descended upon Greece. No one lived there, no one died there, no one built anything, no one made anything. Nobody lost anything that we could dig up and find. It's Rip Van Winkle land and suddenly a trumpet blows and everybody's up and running again. There's a 550 year gap, the same gap is appearing...there's a very fine book written by Peter James and four other archaeologists, it's called Centuries of Darkness and they go through every single ancient civilization around the Med and every one of them has got this dark ages and dislocations of 300, 600, 700 years all over the place. The reason is that they tie every history to Egypt. If there's a marriage between a king and a daughter or a trade agreement, it's always tied to Egyptian dates and if there's one thing that's well known in historical and archaeological circles the history of Egypt is a gigantic mess. It's one hell of a muddle. That affects us, it affects us in that it makes a mess and a nonsense of our history of Brutus getting here in 500 BC. So they say ah well Brutus is a myth he never existed, the Trojan War never existed, that's the Anglo-Saxon sort of view. Then Heinrich Schliemann goes out to Troy or Hisarlik in 1873 and 1876 and says this is Troy. Troy now exists. I've got a book from 1891 by an Oxford guy saying Troy never existed it's a fiction in the mind of Homer. Hang about, they found it years before. But if you can say Troy is a fiction therefore all ancient British history is founded on a fiction and this is what they actually did. They proposed that all our history should be abandoned because it was fictional. We don't agree. I've been into this, this way, that way, every other way, forty different ways. Now in Wales and in England and in Scotland there was an ancient alphabet. Julius Caesar describes it, others mention it. It's said that Ammianus Marcellinus said that the Greeks got the alphabet from the Brits which actually turns out would be logical. Caesar said it's similar to the Greek alphabet. So in 1936/1937 the BBC (which was the voice of God then, it was the only radio in Britain, there was no TV and the state made damn sure nobody had a private radio) launched a huge campaign and part of the campaign was the destruction of ancient British history and they declared that the ancient Coelbren alphabet was a complete forgery invented in roughly 1800 AD, 200 years ago, Napoleon's time and the villain of the piece was a fella named Edward Williams who was a great copier of ancient manuscripts, you see in Britain manuscripts rot, they fade, they get wormwood and they get damaged in fires. So they kept recopying them down the years. So they state the Coelbren alphabet is a total forgery. Well that doesn't explain how it's on stones in Scotland which are confidently dated to around 500 AD which is only 1300 years before it's forged. It doesn't explain how Llywelyn Siôn wrote down cyphers of the alphabet in 1530. It doesn't explain why there are stones in England with the Coelbren alphabet on it. In 1852, 28 feet down they dug up a stone in St Paul's churchyard in London. Plastered with it. There are stones in Wales, same alphabet. English are people who wrote travel itineraries around Britain and they noted several stones and in the pre-photograph era they drew pictures of stones in England which had the same Coelbren alphabet. So you begin to wonder what's going on? We decided we'd look at it in some detail. We found a poet who died in 1367 who wrote about the Coelbren alphabet. We found two others around the 1420/1425 period who wrote about it, mentioned it. It existed. We found another couple in the 1444/1450 period. We're going back 400 years before it's "forged". We found another couple around 1470. In 1582 Rhys Goch of Oswestry wrote a poem describing and lampooning the ancient Coelbren alphabet. He'd have a job because if he's writing in 1582 and it didn't exist until it was forged in 1800 there's something wrong. So we decided the alphabet is genuine. We then discovered in 1797 a writer said that the British Coelbren alphabet is identical to the alphabet in Italy, the Etruscan alphabet which is also is Rhaetia, Switzerland and that it is also identical with the Pelagian alphabet which means the Aegean and ancient Asia Minor, Turkey. It's identical. Someone else wrote this and published it in great detail in 1848 and 1852 and a second author in 1848 also said it's identical to Etruscan, it's identical to the Pelagian in Turkey and Aegean. Nobody did anything. They will confidently tell you that every alphabet in the world has been tried to read Etruscan. Not true. They didn't try ours (Coelbren). So this went on and in 1906 D. Delta Evans published again that the Coelbren alphabet is identical to Etruscan and Pelagian. So we said let's take some Coelbren inscriptions and see if we can read them because we've got the cypher. Llywelyn Siôn wrote it down. That symbol is A, that one's B, that's ones C, that one's D. We know the cypher and we also have the Welsh language, 4000 years old. So we took some of these inscriptions and said that's a G, that's a W, that's an E and out came Welsh words and we could read the unreadable inscriptions in Britain. So we looked at little tiny inscriptions from Etruria in Italy. There are 1400+ inscriptions in Italy and they can't read them. Pliny the Elder writing around the turn of the Christian era, he wrote, be careful, Etruscan is not related to Latin or Greek. So what do they do they try and translate Etruscan as Latin or Greek and get nowhere. So we took little ones like one a wine jug, a little inscription and it said "Drink too much and you're bandy-legged like a sailor." Well I'm 77 and when I was a kid a lot of my old uncles had been to sea and grandfather had and my great-grandfather was a sailing ship captain and old sailors because the ships used to be different to a modern ship which is pretty stable they used to walk like this, bandy-legged. There were others but they all fitted in and they all made sense. There was a guy who was clearly a defeated gladiator with a broken arm and that and a goddess has got her arm around him and the inscription matches that scene. It's says how he's getting comfort from the deity. So we knew we were onto a good thing and we started to look at the bigger Etruscan inscriptions, big stele like a tombstone with loads of writing on it. The Etruscans helped us a lot because every few letters they put a dot. That meant end of word so you knew which were words. All you had to find out was whether it read from right to left or left to right. Sometimes it reads that way then that way then that way, boustrophedon they call it. So we'd now been happily reading unreadable, indecipherable Etruscan since 1984. We've attempted to tell archaeologists, scholars and linguists. They don't even answer your letters. You see we're not working for a university. Thank God. Well we're not brain-dead. Anyway, the point is most of you are here and all the speakers are here because they are free-thinkers. They've got a brain that God's given them and they are prepared to use it. Now maybe they don't always get it right but a least they're trying. But in university it's like an army, you get some of the top people in some of the top universities, they're in charge and what they says goes and if you don't say what they say you're looking for a promotion elsewhere or maybe looking for a job elsewhere. They're too regimental. Well, we decided to move further back and we went to the Aegean and Turkey and we found that in 1876 a large inscription had been found on the island of Lemnos. It showed a man with a spear and an inscription clearly in Coelbren. So we deciphered it. It gives a description of people gathering on the island under a leader and they are going to sail to the great green island out in the western ocean. They call it the island of the Goetia in British histories. That parallels the gathering of fleets there. That inscriptian was found in 1876 as well, it's in the Athens museum and you can see it. The leader with a spear is Brutus. That's the tale of our ancestors who sail to the UK. We then tackled the inscriptions that are scattered through what is now Turkey and they are all readable and they are all readable using Welsh, Khumric, the correct word is Khumic, there's no such nation as the Welsh. It's an old English word meaning 'strangers'. By the way my father is English and my mother is Welsh. My colleague is a Geordie, Geordie, Geordie so we're not Welsh nationalists as we have been accused of being. We found that we could read the lot. One thing that happened, we were looking at magazine one day and there was man sitting at a desk and he's attempting to decipher the copper scrolls found at Qumran. I don't know if you know but of all the scrolls of Qumran two are on copper and all the others are on papyrus and the two copper scrolls are not in the same language or alphabet as the others. Professor Kyle McCarter out in the United States said he was going to decipher them. He didn't know what the alphabet was and he didn't know what the language was but "it was Hebrew" and he said what has happened, they must have given the copper to be inscribed to some village scribe who's out in the sticks somewhere with some local village dialect and wasn't very literate. Now hang about, copper was nearly as expensive as gold and papyrus was cheap. So all the clever guys in Qumran are writing on papyrus and some idiot semi-literate is going to write on the copper. It's not very logical. If you look at the copper scrolls you'll see something, they were once flat and rolling the up was a mistake because the only way to unroll them was too cut them up into sections but when laid out flat you'll see holes a few inches along the top and holes a few inches up along the bottom and from each hole there is a tear/rip. That was once a plate nailed onto a wall and someone has ripped it off the wall. We know that Solomon put plates of gold on his temple, he but the laws on plates of gold and put them on his temple walls. Shishak the Egyptian came in about 930 and robbed the temple and took it all away. Rehoboam the son of Solomon didn't have the money to put gold plates back so he put them up in copper. Interesting isn't it. Of course Nebuchadnezzar came along and he had a go at the temple 100 years later. But the point is, somebody may have ripped...this is my interpretation...somebody may have ripped that off the wall, rolled it up quick, put it under his cloak and got it out. That's what it looks like. The point is the writing on the copper scrolls is Coelbren. I was out in the States, I went to Kentucky to meet Jim Michael who was doing the same work as us finding things in Coelbren. There are Coelbren inscriptions all down the east coast and up through the mid-west up the Ohio River in Tennessee and Kentucky. Coelbren everywhere and you can read it. He took me one evening to a Baptists ceremony, it was a Friday night and we got there and he actually persuaded this man Malik who'd been a Roman Catholic priest of some sort from Poland, sitting on these copper scrolls for 40 years, nobody getting to see them, nobody getting near them. But we now had photographs. Well the photographs must have been taken at two in the morning on a very dark night in a thunderstorm...black & white...terrible. They clearly didn't want you to see it. He didn't want you to know. But nonetheless we deciphered 5 lines in about an hour and a half. As there are only 208 lines you wonder what Mr Malik was doing? Again they translate into our ancient language, our ancient alphabet. It's ours. We had trouble at the time because you've got to realise the Iron Curtain was still up, the Berlin Wall was still there and we wanted to get at the Zagreb Shroud. Somebody had found a mummy wrapped in 32ft cloth about 2ft wide and it was plastered from one end to the other in...have a guess...Coelbren writing and we wanted to see what it said. So we're now back to Egypt. Now what is coming out of this is one simple thing. The King of Judah was Amaziah around 790, he fought a war with Edom a little kingdom and won and thought he was a big boy. So he then challenges the King of Ten Tribe Israel. You have two tribes of Judah and ten tribes of Israel. Jehoash was the king there. Famous verse in the Bible: "A thistle in Lebanon sent a message to a cedar in Lebanon, 'Give your daughter to my son in marriage.' Then a wild beast in Lebanon came along and trampled the thistle underfoot." What it means is, you're out of your league pal. Amaziah didn't take any notice and he went up and fought with Jehoash and his army was annihilated, they tied him behind his chariot and dragged him back to Jerusalem, pulled down 200 yards of the wall...It's in both the Kings and Chronicles in the Bible and it's in Flavius Josephus. He pulls down 200 yards of the wall of Jerusalem. Goes in and takes everything from the palace and he takes everything from the temple. Now everything from the temple would include the Arc. He also took the family of Obed Edom who were the family specifically assigned as guardians of the Ark. They mentioned 14 times in the Bible. So we said hey the Arc's going to Sumeria in 790. Now it interested us because we'd translated the Agnone tablet in Italy, Etruscan. It's a big bronze tablet. The academics have looked at it, they can't read it but they think it's a menu of a restaurant. I'm telling you. A bronze tablet, we're talking about 500-600 BC. It's immensely valuable. Kings had bronze tablets not restaurants. The tablet is in 3 sections and the first section says the people are in a land where they are not happy and there's great storms, there's pestilence and there's all sorts of trouble so they leave under a chosen leader and when they leave they follow a little cabinet that rides in a cart and they come to a place where they are happy. We think it's Moses leading them out of Egypt and we think the land is up in Canaan and we think the little cabinet in the cart is the Arc. The second section says they are in this happy land and somebody comes along and disturbs them and takes them and drags them away to a land where they are unhappy and again they follow the little cabinet that rides in the cart. Well you've got to remember one of the kings of Judah paid an enormous sum of cash to the king of Assyria Tiglath-Pileser III to persuade him to attack Ten Tribe Israel and he probably did. That was Tiglath-Pileser III in about 740 BC. He's followed by Shalmaneser V, Sargon II and Sennacherib. Each one of them deported huge numbers of people from Ten Tribe Israel up north of Harran towards Armenia. It's in the records. Sennacherib transported 202,020 people in one go so these are moving small numbers they are taking people away. They moved in other tribes then from Persia. Which became Sumeria. So we've got the Ten Tribes of Israel up north of Harran and they've followed the little cabinet in the cart. Now the third section of the Agnone tablet says the people are not happy where they are and they decide to move off and again and they move off following the little cabinet riding in the cart. They go through many lands and arrive at the sea where they take ship. Well obviously if that's the Dardanelles that's the journey of a people called the Khumry. The Assyrian records call them the Khumry. They're on stelae in Syria as the Khumry. The Greeks pick up on them as they go through Asia Minor 687-650 is the dating when Sennacherib gets murdered in a temple by two of his sons, the other son fights them. There's civil war in Assyria what a perfect time to take off and out of it and that's what they did. The second Book of Esdras, chapter 14 will tell you how they crossed both branches of the Y-shaped Euphrates River and they go west. The Greeks then knew of the in Turkey, Asia Minor and called them the Kimmeroi. They were really a menace. The Greeks thought thought let them in, get them out, keep on going. There's too many of them and half of them go to Etruria. That's in Herodotus -- half of a nation goes to Italy, to Etruria. The other half stayed there until 500 and then they come to the UK and we knew if that little box that rides in a cart is the Arc taken from Jerusalem, not south by little baby Menelik I in his carrycot to Ethiopia. It went north and if it went north it either went to Italy, Etruria or it came to the UK. What's a greal? Spell greal G-R-E-A-L. Use the proper spelling. Manuscript of 1106, Y Seint Greal, sixth year of Henry I. Y Seint Greal, big manuscript. That's where Mallory took his stuff, purloin lumps of it to write 'Morte Arthur', he didn't take all of it he just took bits. It's in...it's not English, nonetheless it's there. If you're looking for a greal, if you look in the 1688 Welsh dictionary you'll find a greal is a valuable document. The Magna Carta is a greal, the American Declaration of Independence is a greal, the Talmud is a greal, the Koran is a greal, the Bible is a greal. If you're looking for a holy greal we think it is the tablets of Moses when he wrote the Ten Commandments and they are inside the Arc. Cardiff and the valleys up the Rhondda always had a legend and the legend was known to me when I was a young kid in the 1930's. There's a great big box somewhere, a wooden box and inside this wooden box is a great treasure and the box is guarded by...in Welsh... Cigfrangawr which mean flesh eating crows, ravens. A Cherubim of old times wasn't the nice little angel he was a fearsome dragon beast with wings. So it's not difficult to see the great box...the wooden box as the Arc and it's not difficult to see the two Cherubim placed on top of the Arc with their wings outstretched. It's not difficult to say well that might be the Arc and so we set out to find the Arc. Not difficult actually. All over South Wales Glamorgan & Gwent there are huge mounds mainly on hilltops, huge earth mounds, I mean really big earth mounds the size of this room. Some are small. My colleague said to me one day, he said what's that one up there called? It's called Blaediad. I said oh that's means 'ferocious warrior' and sometimes a penny drops. We'd already learned ignore the Greeks, ignore the Romans, if you want to find something out ancient Arab, ancient Hebrew, ancient Egyptian names. The ancient Arabs, Hebrews and Egyptians call the constellation Hercules 'The Ferocious Warrior' and the penny was dropping because over in the over direction is Twmbarlwn - the He-Goat, Capricorn and over the other way, another mound on top of a hill and that was spot on for the great constellation of Argo. Now if you've got two or three stars you can triangulate and find a pole star and we did and it's a standing stone. From there we found all these big mounds, there all named and located for stars, the major stars in the heavens. It's a star map on the ground. They go on about the Nazca Lines in Peru, we've got something better and bigger. We've got huge mounds that make up a gigantic map of the stars. Just outside Cardiff on the Garth Mountain there's two big ones and one little one. It's right for the constellation of Orion, big one in the woods and you can find the four outlying stars of Orion. Come across the way in Cardiff, houses built all round it and another mound on the other side of Cardiff matches the constellation Aries. They're everywhere and that's how you get after the Arc, all you've got to do is find is Regulus which is the biggest of the lot. We said Regulus because Regulus is the biggest star in Leo -- the lion and Leo the lion is the emblem of Judah in Jerusalem so we though there's a good chance that's it. It's a man-made mound about 4 acres of it, 60ft high, all man-made on top of another hill. Someone in antiquity built a stone wall around the top. No gates, why would they do that, why build a stone wall around the top of a Welsh hill I do not know but the inside area is called Gollwg which means place of worship and the whole mound is called Ynys-y-Byl or Ynys-y-Bil means special area (enclosure) of the Ark. There are four sumps on the north side like big hollows in the ground. At the bottom of them are pits with white stones in. The way they drained ancient chambers in Britain underground is they had a sump in the bottom of the chamber and they ran a shaft, a tunnel down the hillside and where it would come out of the hillside the water would come out into one of these bowls. They have been excavated elsewhere. So water would run down into the chamber, be bled off down the shaft, it wouldn't rush out and do damage it would come up in a in a tick and there were these white stones filling up these 18 inch circular things in the bottom the curved sump. It's like saw upside down...a bow. Thing is no weeds ever grew on these stone so we got a sample and found there were three different sorts. One of our lads took them to the museum and other places. They turned out to be stones that can only be found in Cornwall 300 miles away. So we know there are at least four underground chambers there and we got our lad from London, we have one of the world's experts fortunately. He was the first guy who was able to detect metal underwater. He'd been out in Australia gold mining and then he'd been out in Arizona but he came back and he wanted to meet us. He's got a metal detector and it will reach down 30 feet and it will tell you whether it's ferrous or non-ferrous metal. There is an object there 2 feet by 4 feet and it's non-ferrous metal. That's as far as we got with that one. Anyway, to revert to King Arthur. The Empress Helen brought the Cross back from Jerusalem. It's in all our histories. It's in 25 different histories across the world. It's in the Exeter book which is Saxon. The Empress Helen mother of Constantine the Great, she goes to Jerusalem on a pilgrimage, she went on a pilgrimage round Sina the steps of Moses and she asked for the Cross and she finally whittled it down from about 120 of them, to about 50 of them, to round about 10 and she round it down to one guy and she put him in a dry well, no food, no water and she wasn't going to let him out until he told her where the Cross was. So he realised the game was up and he told her where the Cross was. She got the nails, made a bridle bit for her son Constantine for his horse. She plastered the Cross with gold and jewels put it in a silver casket got in her ship and brought it back to the UK. If you got to Wales you find a field, the field of the Cross, the road of the Cross 10 miles further on, the Pass of the Cross, the Vale of the Cross, the Wood of the Cross and it goes all round the country like that. You see when these potentates, Kings and that travelled they didn't leave any of their loot behind them in the palace or court they took everything with them in ox carts so the wagon trains go about 8-10 miles a day. She paraded it round the country and she finally put it in Constantinople. Which Constantinople? You see there's a little hamlet in west Wales called Constantinople. Nearby is Castell Ellyn Fawr -- the Castle of the Great Helen. Then there's Afon Banon - the River of the Empress and then there's Cefn Banon -- the Ridge of the Empress and there's more and more and more. So we were on the track of the Cross. We know where it is. Edward I wanted it. He to the Welsh I want the Cross and I also want the iron crown of King Arthur. They wouldn't give it to him. There's a sealed cave and we've put the old magic machine on it again (metal detector) and there is an object there about 4-5 feet long and a foot by a foot and it's non-ferrous metal. We think that matches the silver casket that she put the bit of cross in. So that's the sort of thing that we do. This is how we go about it and that's what we do. Arthur is two kings. Firstly Christianity arrived in the UK in 37 AD. Who says so? Well Cardinal Baronius and Cardinal Alford the official historians of the Catholic Church around 1530. They said, which alarmed the Bishop of Rome. He set out to asked them questions and he didn't like the answers. Also the British writers, Gildas 6th century, Nennius died 822, they both say Christianity came to the UK in the last year of Tiberius which is 37 AD. The Holy Family arrives in the UK. Now believe or not a multitude of ancient Welsh and English princes claim decent from intermarriage with the Holy Family. A multitude not one for two. I made a few photocopies to prove it. The point being that Athur is a member of these Holy Families. The most famous manuscript is the Life of St. Cadoc, 6th century saint and at the beginning it says Virgin Mary, son of the Virgin Mary, brother of Jesus of Nazareth. So he's claiming decent from Jesus of Nazareth. The most famous manuscript that we've got in the UK is probably the Harleian 3859 and in it are the genealogies that were collected for the wedding of a Prince Owain son of Hywel Dda around 920. The manuscript was recopied I think about 1100. It lists all his ancestors, there's about 30 odd lists you see because you link back into different families as you go further back through marriages and intermarriages. But nonetheless it says here...it gives Owain and his father Hywel Dda and his father Cadell and so on. At Amalech there is an extraordinary note that says Amalech the son of Beli the Great and Anna who is said to be the cousin of Virgin Mary. It's repeated in list after list, manuscript after manuscript with different connotations. The same manuscript goes on about Maxim gulecic - Magnus Maximus and his decent from Constantine the Great. Magnus Maximus was the only son of Crispus Flavius Nobilis Caesar. He was the only son of the first marriage of Constantine the Great with Minervina -- a British princess. Therefore he's the eldest son of Constantine. The only son is Magnus of Crispus who's the oldest son of Constantine the Great. Magnus is a great British ancestral figure. He came back to Britain and his descendants are multitudinous. His eldest son was Arthur I the son of his first wife Ceindrech daughter of Rheiden. It's all written down. Now this is the Arthur in history who invades Gaul with an army in 383. He invaded France. The Romans were kicked out Britain by the way in 322 by King Euddaf they weren't in Britain. The Romans were in and out of Britain like a bishop in a proverbial brothel. This idea of 400 years of Roman rule has to be mickey mouse, it's a joke. It has no truth whatsoever and once you start reading these histories you realise we've been fed a load of old baloney. Are they taking us for a ride? Anyway. Magnus Maximus is his Arthur's father and Arthur invades France in 383 with an army of reputably 60,000 men so they've got a big fleet. The other records say 37,000. They besiege Paris under Lady St Genevieve (who becomes the Lady Guinevere of the confused Romantic Arthurian tales) and there's a mosaic in the Modena Cathedral from 1100 showing the siege of Paris by Arthur and his men and that is Arthur I. Gratian the emperor of Rome comes up and they fight at Soissons. Our records say at the Battle of Sassy at Soissons 12 miles south of Paris and Gratian is defeated by Arthur and he chases him down to Lyon invites him to supper and kills him. So Magnus becomes emperor of the west, Arthur proceed to Switzerland and he goes down to Italy. In Taranto there's a mosaic of him riding on a goat. He crossed over the Balkans and fought two huge battles with the emperor of the east Theodosius. One at Poetovio and the other at Sisica. It's well recorded and the reason I'm going into this a little bit is we're going to get somewhere in a minute. Arthur comes back to the UK because Magnus was surprised at Ravenna and killed after a rapid surprise march made by Theodosius' troops. One of his half-brothers is Flavius Victor Augustus of Gaul in Paris, he gets killed. Arthur comes back to the UK and he has sons and presumably daughters. In the year 406 AD which is not long after this 383-388 effort, 20 years, the Vandal confederation invaded Gaul. The Sueves, the Alans and the Vandals and they smashed up Gaul which is how the Vandals gave their name to vandalism. The Roman army was cut to pieces and couldn't do anything with them. The British wanted to keep them away from the coast so they elected Constantine a cousin of Arthur to be king and this war king takes the British army (which doesn't exist according to the English historians) across to Gaul and they promptly smashed up the Vandals, the Sueves, and the Alans and they penned them in south of France against the Pyrénées and Geraint the general blocked the pass of the Pyrénées. Honorius is in Rome biting his fingernails, doesn't know what to do. The British king is sat in Trèves and he didn't know what to do and his generals were saying get after Honorius get him! Go kill him! But he was dithering. Alaric the Goth saw the opportunity so he invades Italy and did he cause havoc he ransacked every city including Rome. He passes by Rome and he's heading south Honorius writes a letter and the letter is to the citizens of Rhegium in the province of Brittium which is the toe of Italy and he says Alaric's on his way and there's nothing I can do, you're on your own. Do you know the English academics in Oxford and Cambridge and persuaded people for hundreds of years that Honorius writes his letter to Britain and tells the helpless British your own your own. Hang about the British king is running France and Britain and he's just kicked the daylights out of these big Germans and you'll see that in book after book these poor helpless Britons dependant on the Romans get a letter from Honorius. Read Olympiodorus and Zosimus the historians, they'll tell you that the letter didn't come to Britain it went to the toe of Italy, you're on your own Alaric is coming. Have they lied to us because that is a blatant lie and you can read it in many books. We weren't helpless at all. I digress. OK Arthur I had a son Tathall (Theodore) whose son was Teithrin the Subtle (Theodorus) who left his name on a font. Teithrin the Subtle had a son Teithfallt (Theodosius). Teithfallt becomes king of Britain after a great massacre which killed most of the royal family he becomes king. His son is King Tewdrig (Theoderic), he's killed at the fighting at the ford Rhyd Tintern as in the Anglo-Saxon chronicles and in the Welsh records in 508 AD. He was severely wounded and they took him away, he wanted to be buried at Ynys Echni in Cardiff Bay, they brought him down the River Wye but they couldn't go far, he's on a cart being drawn and they got to a well and he died there. King Tewdrig was Arthur II's grandfather. King Tewdrig is buried in nearby and they built a church over it. It's been excavated in 1617 and 1881. There's a skeleton with a big wound in his skull, so he's there. Now if you can find Arthur II's grandfather it would be a bit odd if you can't find him. You see where this is going? Athur II's father was King Meurig (Maurice). We know where he's buried it's clearly stated. Then you come to Arthur II, this mysterious non-existent king. Do you know there are more accounts of his grave and burial then you could fill a sack with. It's the more glorious well-known, well-advertised funeral you've ever heard of in the Dark Ages. All 182 mayors of the different areas of Britain attend. He's kept in a cave while they're digging and getting the final burial site ready. You go to the cave, there are two accounts here, one from Nennius and one from the Life of St. Illtyd. A boat comes up the Ewenny River, the body's in the boat with a stone on it, they take the body out of the boat, they put it in the cave. Go in that cave there's a big pit and it's very hard rock it's cut out 11ft long about 3-4ft wide and 4ft deep. That's where they put him while they're making ready. There's actually an inscription on the wall covered in stalactites saying this is where he is and that was found accidently by Colin Games and Blair Urquhart, two filmmakers. They panned across the wall looking for spiders, there's strange rare spiders there and he caught this inscription. Anyway so we know all about Arthur I and we know all about Arthur II. The only mystery is why they are a mystery. I don't know, there's no mystery at all. The other thing they will tell you is, this is Geoffrey Ashe the Canadian who was with us: "I have searched every map and every part of Britain and I cannot find the Battle of Badon site, famous battle and I can't find the Battle of Camlann. That's a bit odd really because if you get an Ordnance Survey map you'll find the army gathering ground is still there at Ogmoor and the army gathers at noon, drives across the water, joins the king, he doesn't recognise the king so he splashes him, gets a whack for that, these stories are there. They decide at 9 o'clock to go up to Badon for the battle. The road going up the Maesteg valley is known in Khumric as the 'Road of the Tumult' and you get there and on the Ordnance Survey map it says Mynydd Baedan, Baedan Mountain...can't find it. I wanted visit and spoke to the famer she said you can go and have a look round. He said "Oh yeah big battle up there after the Romans, really big battle up there." The fields are named Maes Cad Lawr - Field of Battle Area and it's called Mynydd Baedan as there's the 'Dell of Chastisement' and the local blacksmith remembered all the local folklore in about 1870 so he wrote a book and drew diagrams to preserve it and where the army was stationed and where they did it because it's been passed down the centuries. Now apparently they can't find the Battle of Camlann, none of them. They don't know where Camlann is. It's two battles actually. Arthur brings the army back from Brittany and lands at Llongborth. Where's Llongborth? Nobody knows. West Wales, nice big sandy beach where they could bring 50-60 ships in together. It's like a D-Day battle because it's described in the epic poetry as a D-Day battle in the surf and the Prince Geraint gets mortally injured, that's the sad bit. Then Arthur gets the army ashore. The farm there is called Llongborth Farm. There's a Prince Bledri that's killed in the fighting. Well close by is the a big stone with Bledri written on it. Three miles inland Prince Geraint takes three days to die. They send to Brittany for a coffin for him. There's Bedd Geraint Farm - Grave of Geraint Farm complete with his large grave mound. If you go inland and ask where is the old main road going out of here...because Modred son of Llew is now fleeing from his uncle who was after him. Get your Ordinance Survey map to the east of Dolgellau, Camlann mountain and Camlann Valley. Same thing. Little winding valley, ideal place to try and stop someone with a small number of men, bottle them up with a bottleneck. What's the villager say? "Oh yeah, started down there it did, took three days to get through." They know all about it. Of course Oxford and Cambridge think Wales is on the dark side of the Moon. Actually it's not. The point I'm making is none of these things and places are hard to find. There harder to miss then they are to find. Now there are about two hundred stones in Wales of ancient kings. The BBC made a program on Emperor Carausius. Often there was two or three emperors ruling together. Diocletian had a co-emperor named Maximilian but there was a third one in the tri-emperorate Carausius. So they ruled a chunk of the empire each round about 270-280 period. Carausius is a British king (Carawn) and he ruled Britain and Gaul. He was known as the admiral because he had a big fleet that stopped any of the other two getting to Britain. Now the joke is BBC Timewatch said there is no trace of Carausius in Britain. So I wrote them a letter which said what do you make of the tombstone of Carausius found at Pen Machno with his name on it. It's in the Carmarthen Museum. I had a really hot letter back. "No one else has complained about our program." Well they wouldn't bloody know would they? So there are names of these kings all over stones. Now my colleague bought a little group of papers, crumbling papers in a bookshop. He used to go round all the old bookshops buying old books and there was some very good old second hand bookshops down there at the time. One was brilliant. He bought these papers, he gave them about a tenner and in it, John Strange from England from antiquarian society in London has gone into the darkest Africa of Wales to see if he can find Roman remains so he goes round Glamorgan and Beacon and he's terribly disappointed he can't find hardly any Roman remains. It would be lucky if he did because giraffes don't live in the North Pole. They were hardly ever there. In the papers he did find something he found interesting. It's an 8ft high stone, narrow one, the top is floral, and the middle there's a king and he holding a sceptre in one hand and a sword in the other and at the bottom there's an inscription. It's in the alphabet that wasn't invented until 1800 and it says "Gorddwfyn the Exile". It's interesting because Gorddwfyn was the king around the year 200 AD and he was exiled because he was a turbulent and a drunkard and it says "Gorddwfyn the Exile". Now that really woke us up to reality. I was told me this must be a Viking king. A Viking king in Wales in the 6th century. The Vikings were never in Wales. Well they did come there twice. They lost their fleet and their entire army got trapped in Cardiff Bay so they weren't too successful. So this sort of thing is happening all the time you see and it's constant negativity, negativity, negativity it's like a drip, drip, drip. Now instead of having nothing or confusion we have a magnificent history in great detail, remarkably accurate and it belongs to us. All of us. You can't find King Lud of London...yes you can he's peppered through the Welsh records and genealogies in which they recorded the English and the Welsh lines of kings. Lud of London was real. One of his sons is in the Songs of the Graves. He's in the Songs of the Graves because he was fighting as a warrior. His grave site is where it's said. You can go along the banks of the Thames I think it's Berkshire. His grave mound is still there. If his son is real Lud is real. King Coel of Colchester father of Helen of the Cross. She's a descendant of Lud. Lud kicks Caesar's backside and threw him out of Britain. Caesar invaded a second time, found it dead easy, he marched down the south bank of the Thames, nobody stopped him and crossed the Thames no problem. He go up to St Albans and said hey we've got all this way and there's no food and no cattle because the Roman army depended on what it could find where it went. All the people had been taken away, all the cattle has been driven away and they'd burnt the crops. Then he heard the bad news, there's the British army blocking the Thames and there's another British army attacking his fleet. It's in the records. So Caesar thinks hang on, I'm in the middle of enemy territory and I've got no grub. The British king had sent his army home for the winter and he had 4000 chariots stationed around Caesar's beleaguered force preventing them from getting at any food. Because they'd have to go out in groups foraging for food these fast moving chariots would sort them out. The folklore story is that Cassivelaunus (Kasswallawn) - means viceroy said to Caesar come to supper and he suggest he go home. So Caesar went home surrounded by the British army. So the English academics say this was a sign of respect to the Romans acting as an escort. Like hell it was. It was making sure they go out of Britain as fast as they could without doing any more damage. Get them out. The description in Caesar's Gallic Wars is they piled the soldiers onto the ships. Three times more soldiers per ship then they normally would. It's like the British withdrawal from Dunkirk and the American organised withdrawal from Vietnam, Saigon. They were battered. Lud built a triumphal arch in London. He built the city of London you see. That's what the British records say. He built a remarkable city on the bank of the Thames. He built a triumphal arch. About ten years ago archaeologists found the remains of a triumphal arch at Ludgate. "Must be Roman". Hang about didn't Lud built it. Nah must be Roman. Everything they find, if they find one stone on top of another it's Roman. How myself and my colleague have not become so infuriated and mad with this? There are twelve ancient Roman records of druids. Eleven of the records are about the druids of the south of France and one is dubious. They didn't know anything about Britain. Large numbers of Roman emperors had British queens as wives. Numbers of Roman emperors were British. They don't tell you that. Very often the Roman emperorship was split into two or three. It wasn't just one emperor ruling all. They had western emperors in the 320-350 period. Three of the them have left their gravestones in Glamorgan. They say it must be a Roman milestone, hang on there's no Roman road. It doesn't say how many miles from where to where? Euddaf who kicked the lieutenant of Constantine the Great out in 320-322 is the grandson of the Emperor Victorinus We've been told bullshit in large does and this is why the establishment love us so much. They really like myself and my colleague. We're top of their Christmas card list. We're not going to give up, we're not going to stop. We've written eight books so far banging down the information, the Arthur conspiracy, we go into detail, we don't just generalise we stick it to them. We've written a book of the hieroglyphs, we can read the Egyptian hieroglyphs. Professor Sir John Morris Jones in 1896 he wrote a thesis and he said that all the syntax and construction of the language of ancient Welsh is the same as Egyptian. So we said we know that the Ten Tribes are the Khumry, we know that they were in Asia Minor and we know they were in Assyria. When Austen Henry Layard dug up 25,000 tablets of the archives of the emperors of Assyria at Nineveh he sent them off to London. They got them in London and they said ooh look some of these are in the old British Coelbren alphabet let's do nothing about that. So they're called the Khumry, they're still called the Khumry all the time and these excavations that have gone on since the 1800's and the modern century, they're giving evidence, evidence, evidence that what our ancestors told us and recorded for us is right. We were not a group of barbarian peasants sitting in mud huts. What happened? 562 AD Britain and parts of Ireland were devastated by a comet -- definitely. It's in the records. That's how in the Arthurian legends you get the great wastelands, places where you can't go and you can't live, you'll die. Nothing lives no birds, no reptiles, no plants, dead land. For seven to eleven yeas Arthur II immediately evacuated the army to Brittany to get everybody out because he knew he'd need it to get back. Because in those days other countries didn't send help they came over to rob what they could. So he's over in Brittany and then comes back and this is when he fights the Llongborth battle on the beach and Camlann because his nephews tried to take over while he was away. This is how the Angles and Saxons got into Britain. They were coming into depopulated, devastated, recovering lands with very few people in most areas and certainly not much opposition. So the Anglo-Saxon conquest makes sense. Otherwise they're saying three boats of Saxons or Jutes under Hengist conquered 10 million people. These Brits must have been weak. They'd only been kicking the daylights out of the Romans for a while. The 562 comet is the answer to the lot of it. We've been mocked and laughed at. Professor Victor Clube astrophysics professor at Oxford University, he agrees a comet hit Britain but his colleagues went after him. Professor Michael Baillie a dendrochronologist at Queen's University Belfast he found out that all the trees of Britain and Ireland, forests, were all burned. Right across. Gregory of Tours, French historian wrote that all the forests of the two islands in the ocean are ablaze. Of course this was all disbelieved; it was not suitable because the Church of Rome said that no stone can ever fall from heaven on Earth. Pope says so. So when in 1457 a meteorite nearly hit one of the big potentates out in the Balkans that was discounted. But they had to give in, in 1803 when large parts of a meteorite hit southern France and they had to concede that things can fall from heaven. The funny thing is American academics from Austin University Texas, from Pennsylvania and from the Chicago museum; they're all digging us Bolivia because all the temples, the pyramids, all the towns built of mud brick, everything was destroyed and most of the population was destroyed in 562 AD by a comet. Now the Brits knew it came from the northeast going southwest. Get youself a globe or a map, draw a line and you go right through Bolivia and the date is the same 562. Now we've got an American professor she's an astronomer at New York University and she's finding traces of this cometary debris towards Australia. Straight line. So if it hit Bolvia then it hit Britain because it's come that way. Of course it hit Britain that's what all our records say but "you mustn't read those records because they're all forged". The theory is that for about 1500 years about 2000 writers, bards, chroniclers all got together and they made this gigantic interlocking forgery and they put it all together neatly. One of these writers was a king and they made this huge forgery and foist that off on the unsuspecting public. What public I don't know. The theory itself is a nonsense. Actually we collectively are not up against clever people or we're not up against hard working people because I know that everyone who has come up on this platform has worked hard at what he does. We're up against scallywags, timeservers who are looking for their next rung of the promotion ladder who are not going to say anything even if they believe it because they don't want to be out of a job or favour and this is the way things go. Academia works like that. Now it doesn't take a genius to see that if somebody descends from Iestyn ap Gwrgan or Morgan the last king in 1300. Wales is a kingdom, that makes the Prince of Wales look a right Charlie. So you've got Iestyn ap Gwrgan who had 14 sons, he had brothers who had sons, all the decedents kept their records, they're gentry you see. There's people walking round today who can trace back to him. If you trace back to Justin (Iestyn ap Gwrgan - Justin son of Aurelian) you're back to Arthur II, you're back to Arthur I, you're back to Constantine the Great and you are back to Brutus the first king. So when they amalgamated...actually they annexed Wales to England none of the Welsh Lords were allowed in the House of Lords. When they joined England and Scotland the Scots Lords went into the House of Lords. When they joined Ireland to England and Scotland the Irish Lords went into the House of Lords. But not the Welsh because it's a pecking order thing, right. Is all this making sense? So you have two King Arthurs one descended from the other, one 6th century, one's late 4th century, one does attack the Romans and one does deal with the Saxons and the Angles. That's why when Polydore Vergil, he was the historian for Henry VIII, he said look this Arthur figure is ridiculous he's 250 years old and a Welsh victor said yeah but he's two people and the Reverend Williams in North Wales wrote a book on it in 1734. So it's always been known that he was two people. Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset, we better deal with it. Let's bury it. Glastonbury Abbey in Somerset was founded in 940. The first Abbot was Dunstan in 941 and it was a little building that they've since discovered, the later abbey was bigger and it was built as a mortuary chapel for some of the English kings and how they can persist with that one God only knows. Some of the Welsh kings used to retire when they were old and go to live in Cornwall. You see when they'd get to about 70 they'd think hang about I've done a lot of bad things, I've had this woman and murdered him and I assassinated that one...and I'll go and be a priest. So they'd hand the kingdom over and they'd go and join the church. "Excuse me you majesty I think you've had it"..."Well baptise me". They'd get baptised on their own because then the only sins they take to heaven with them are the ones they commit after they're baptised. You don't get a lot of sexual trouble over 70 I'll tell you and if you're retired from active politics you're not going to bother killing anybody. That's what they did. That's how Tewdrig gets killed at the ford at Tintern. He's retired. He's gone to live in a little chapel to see it out and the Saxons invade and they're trying from Maurice and his army so he blocks the ford and they can't get across the ford to get out. So the Saxons are trying to get across the ford to get out. He's stopping them and the Welsh army is coming up behind them and they all got caught in the vice as it were. But if you look at these things sanely read the record Now all I and my colleague do and I promise you this we only read the records, if it's not in the records we don't put it in the book. If it's not on a piece of parchment or a stone tablet or on the side of a jug or on a grave or wherever it does go in the book. If the site isn't there on a map and you can't go and stand on it, it doesn't go in the book. We are not interested in extrapolating or interpreting and speculating. We have made mistakes in our research, it would be weird if we didn't have, it's a seminal work nobody else has bothered for 100 years at least and so we always admit the mistake. If we made a mistake in the book we will say we got that wrong and it's the right way to go. Christianity was in Britain that is clear, we found that one of the great mess-ups of the last century is the famous Songs of the Graves where it names the grave place of some of the illustrious people of ancient Britain including Brutus who is supposed not have existed. There's a full statue of Brutus dated at least 500 BC in Rome with an inscription around the base which is in the Coelbren writing. "He doesn't exist" -- he's got a grave mind. The Reverend Robert Williams decided he would do this job of deciphering/translating the Songs of the Graves. He did it for William Skene, Skene was a Scotsman who wanted to publish old British records. He said there's 183 very brief mentions in the Songs of the Graves of ancient princes and kings. W. H. Thomas in 1958 gave the Rees Memorial lecture and said be careful there's less than 70 names and there' a bit more information on them. So we took this and we said we'll do it as we always do, word 1 look it up, word 2 look it up. We do it one word at a time and we don't pretend, even if we've seen that word two lines before we still look it up in a dictionary and I can speak a bit of Welsh. We looked at the Songs of the Graves, there are 23 names of people buried and where they are. So instead of 183 vague notices there are 23 detailed notices and you can find them. The most famous one liner was, 'Concealed forever is the grave of Arthur'. It actually says 'A bare, exposed place; so be it the grave of Arthur'. Second line says 'It's a damp place, a narrow place and a very windy place.' Rev. Williams said that "Elchuith" is a prince he's buried somewhere. 'El' is extremely and chuith is windy chuith" which is modernly "Bedd el chwith" or "a grave extremely windy." It's a very windy place, it is, it's 900ft upon a mountain. He made a complete mishmash, there's two whole verses on Arthur, it even names the field. Tithe maps will say...they draw a big map and they draw a number in each field and in a tithe book along the side it goes 1,2,3,4,5 down the book. Field number 1 who owns it, who tenants it, how much you've got to pay the church every year at tithe and then in Wales the name of the field, every field had a name. You get the old tithe maps you can read the history of the country on the fields. We were able to read these in some detail. The key one is the grave of Eli Ner the son of Ner who was stretched out on plank crucified, brutally treated. Eli is holy and Ner is Lord God. So you've got the grave of the Lord God, the son of God who was crucified and it tells you exactly where he's buried and I did say the Holy Family came into Britain in 37 AD didn't I. So we got another bunch down our necks, I don't think the Bishop of Rome is going to like it. Tough because we're going to keep printing it. Any questions? Question: The comet in AD 562, is there any idea of an impact point? Answer: We've been looking for places names, it appears to be a scatter of debris and we find a number of places seem to be associated with a lot of mud and there is one place that says there is a cleft in the ground because of this thing. So there is one place but we decided it was too bigger task for us we needed more people, more troops on the ground but we didn't have them but we did have a go and finding where and in what direction. We were able to find some places that were untouched by it, it didn't destroy everything but it seems that some valley places would have escaped because they're concealed but it definitely would have smacked into North Wales, definitely and it would have cleaned out England. So yes we did have a go at finding it and of course the problem in England all the place names have changed they've been anglicised and because they were destroyed the incoming people the Angles and the Saxons they gave them different names. So we've had a go at it yes. Second part of the question: I was watching TV programme about a legendary sword that was made from a meteorite have come across anything about that? Answer: I haven't no. This idea of a sword, we know that the sword of Britain as it were, Julius Caesar on one of his forays into Britain fought against a British prince named Nennius and they came up against each other and Julius hit Nennius and injured him and he went to hit him a second time but his sword got stuck in Nennius's shield. They used to make a shield out of about ten layers of leather not metal because metal would shatter so they had very thick leather shields. Caesar's sword got stuck in the leather, the soldiers on both sides tried to save each one of them, they didn't want them killed, they pulled them apart...this is the story...and so the British had Caesar's sword as a trophy. "We've got Caesar's sword". They kept it, it certainly was believed to be around at the time of Constantine. The English king Athelstan had it, it's in his records and at one time through marriage it went to a nobleman in Belgium and then came back. It's listed in the possessions of King John. English kings are frequently shown with two swords, one in each hand sitting on the throne. So there was two swords the other one was dredged up in the Thames and they think that was that one in the Thames and it's now in France and we've tracked that. In 1649 Cromwell saw off Charles I and had him executed. The Roundhead soldiers took all the royal treasures so Cromwell did the sensible thing and said anybody bringing anything back, jewels whatever you got, you will not be punished and you will be paid for bringing it back. Everything came back except one thing, the sword didn't come back. In Pennsylvania in the USA a house that was built in 1650 was being altered in 1991 and they took down a wall and out of the wall fell a sword. It was sold to a man in Texas who I know well and he discovered I was in the States and he wrote to Jim Michael in Louisville, Kentucky and he sent me a photocopy of the sword because there's writing down the blade, the writing is Coelbren. He them sent me a big photograph of the sword and the Coelbren writing says 'The duty of the host (meaning the army) is to he who holds the sword' and it's in Welsh Coelbren writing down the blade. If there was an Excalibur that's it, it's in Houston in Texas. He was willing to bring it over to the British Museum with the guarantee that it was his property but he would bring it over and put it on exhibition and if he wished he would be able to take it back to the States. The British Museum was wildly interested until he said I'm coming over and then they ran out of toilet paper. So there is a sword of antiquity and you can track it down through the kings. If you went through the possessions of other kings before John you'd probably find that they had but Athelstan had it, the great English king. He was probably the greatest of them. So there is a track on Caesar's sword. I get round don't I? Question: You said that writing materials were banned in Wales; can we assume that's the same for every ancient civilization that gets wiped out then? Answer: Well we're not supposed to be wiped out we're supposed to be unified. When they invented printing and brought printing into London 1474 the first thing parliament did was to prohibit printing in Wales so you couldn't print in Wales until 1694 220 years later. In 1846 parliament sacked every school teacher in Wales and replaced them with English school teachers. So you had 90% of the Welsh population didn't know a word of English, the kids were all sitting there who all spoke Welsh, the teacher came in and he didn't speak any Welsh he only spoke English. It was chaos the Welsh called it The Treachery of the Blue Books and they've done everything they can to kill the language. Did I tell you the story about Betty Boothroyd? Paul Flynn the MP for Newport in Gwent gets up one day in the Commons and he starts reading from a little book. Betty Boothroyd was the chorus girl who became the speaker, remember her? She leaps up "Not one word of that language is ever to be spoken in this house". Actually there's a law that you can't speak a single word of Welsh in the House of Commons. So she rants on about you know this, you know you're not to speak that language and the MP's were rolling laughing. It was on TV I happened to be watching it, I'd been warned about you see. So Paul Flynn reads a bit more. "I told you not to read that" He said "Madame I'm reading Old English from 14th century Chaucer." But the thing is remember an Israeli prime minster got murdered? Yitzhak Rabin. Well when he was young he was a member of the Stern Gang who were terrorists and their speciality was to kidnap British soldiers hold them for a while and then murdered them. He later became prime minister of Israel. He got murdered. MP after MP got up in the House of Commons and said how said they were for this former terrorist who murdered British soldiers. Some Jewish MPs got up and spoke at length in Yiddish, nobody said a word. It's ok to speak Jewish in the House of Commons but don't you dare say iechyd da in Welsh! Which means 'Good on you' Question: I'm sorry for my ignorance about yourself and Ralphs work but Arthur's seat in Edinburgh does that come into it at all? Answer: I know there was a Prince Arthur up in Scotland in 600 to 610 and he's a real person but he's not the Arthur of legend unfortunately. The twelve battle listed in Nennius have been traced and they take place in the north of England over of the west coast and in Scotland so the twelve...I mentioned Camlan and Badon but the twelve other battles fought in the big campaign in Nennius were mainly in Scotland and they've been accurately traced. Question: Where is all this information available? Answer: Where's it available? In our books. There's Welsh kings always gave charters to the church so you've got a king and his bishop, if the bishop dies there's another one, when the king dies that bishop goes to serve the next one. They're always a king's brother or cousin or whatever. The kept it in the family and you had all the clergy listed at the ceremony and you had all the kings and his brothers and sons listed and you've got a cascade down the centuries through the charters from about 400 to 1100 odd. It helps then fill out and matches the genealogies you see and the histories, each one fits together like a glove, there's no quarrels. They were taken to Rome in 1108 and 1120 and shown to the pope. We asked if we could have a look in the Vatican library and look at what they got but we didn't have any money to go. We were hoping that there would be signatures of Arthur's treaties so you'd have an actual signature of King Arthur on a piece of paper but we never got there because as usual we're strapped for cash. Thank you for listening.

Contents

Events

1102

1103

  • Iorwerth ap Bleddyn, prince of Powys, having been insufficiently rewarded for his actions the previous year, again rebels against Henry I[1] and is arraigned before a royal tribunal at Shrewsbury, convicted and imprisoned, leaving his brother Cadwgan ap Bleddyn as sole ruler of the parts of Powys not already in Norman hands.[4]

1109

1110

1111

1112

  • William de Braose regains possession of the estates lost two years earlier.

1113

1114

1115

1116

  • Revolt against the Normans.

1119

1120

1121

1123

1124

1125

  • Bernard, Bishop of St David's, ejects the Benedictines from Carmarthen, replacing them with the Augustinian order.
  • David, Bishop of Bangor, visits the Archbishop of Canterbury at Lambeth.

1127

1128

  • Bishop Urban of Llandaff seeks support from the Pope for the extension of his diocese.

1129

1130

1131

  • 9 May - Tintern Abbey is founded.
  • Bernard, Bishop of St David's, is present at a second council of Reims. His cathedral at St David's receives a “dedication”, possibly indicating a partial rebuilding.

1132

1133

1135

1136

1137

1138

1139

1140

1141

1143

1144

  • Bernard, Bishop of St David's, gives land at Trefgarn to the first Cistercian monks to settle in west Wales.
  • Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd ap Cynan brings a Danish fleet to Abermenai from his Irish allies; the Danes are driven out by his brother Owain Gwynedd. Cadwaladr is reconciled with Owain and restored to Ceredigion.
  • Hugh de Mortimer recaptures Maelienydd and Elfael from the Welsh.

1145

1146

1147

1148

1149

1150

1151

  • Cadell ap Gruffydd is attacked by Normans while hunting in the forest of Coed Rhath. Although he survives the attack, he is unable to continue his military activities.

1152

1153

1154

1155

1157

  • King Henry II of England invades Wales, with the support of Madog ap Maredudd, attacking Anglesey by sea. Despite an ambush in Hawarden Woods (led by Owain's sons Dafydd and Cynan) near Ewloe in north-east Wales, Owain Gwynedd loses the upper hand. A subsequent peace agreement between Henry and Owain forces the latter to cede Tegeingl to England; it is not recovered until the late 1160s. Owain is also made to return his brother Cadwaladr to his former position.

1158

  • Rhys ap Gruffydd is forced to pay homage to King Henry II of England; Rhys temporarily loses Ceredigion and part of Ystrad Tywi.
  • Ifor Bach makes a fatal attack on Morgan ab Owain of Caerleon; Morgan is succeeded by his brother Iorwerth. Later in the year, Ifor captures William, Earl of Gloucester, and his family from Cardiff Castle and holds them hostage pending the restoration of his own former lands.

1159

1160

1162

  • 3 June – David FitzGerald, Bishop of St David's, and Nicholas ap Gwrgant, Bishop of Llandaff, assist in the consecration of Thomas Becket as Archbishop of Canterbury.

1163

1164

1165

1165

1167

1170

1171

1172

  • Philip de Braose is given the “honour” of Limerick, in recognition of his service to the English king in Ireland.
  • Gerald of Wales completes his studies at the University of Paris and returns to Britain. He is soon commissioned by the Archbishop of Canterbury to enforce the payment of tithes on wool and cheese in the diocese of St David's. In the same year David Fitzgerald, the bishop, is granted a royal charter confirming all his possessions.
  • Following the death of his son Owain at the hands of the Earl of Gloucester, Iorwerth ab Owain rebels against Norman rule.

1173

  • Maelgwn ab Owain Gwynedd, one of the sons of Owain Gwynedd, is driven into exile in Ireland by his brother Dafydd. Dafydd sides with the King of England against the Welsh rebels and seeks the hand of Henry's half-sister Emma of Anjou in return for his assistance.
  • Iorwerth ab Owain and his son take Caerleon and other castles in Gwent.

1174

1175

1176

1177

1179

1180

1183

  • Gerald of Wales visits Ireland, with his brother Philip.
  • A rising in Glamorgan is led by Morgan ap Caradog ap Iestyn.

1184

1185

1186

1187

1188

1189

1190

1192

1194

1195

1196

1199

1200

Books

Births

1132

1146

1173

Deaths

1101

1107

1111

1115

1116

1120

1129

1132

1134

1136

1137

1143

1148

1155

1160

1170

1172

1175

1176

1191

1195

1197

1200

References

  1. ^ a b Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 58–60. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
  2. ^ Crouch, David (2007). The Normans; The History of a Dynasty. London: Hambledon Continuum. p. 175.
  3. ^ Moody, T. W.; et al., eds. (1989). A New History of Ireland. 8: A Chronology of Irish History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-821744-2.
  4. ^ "Iorwerth ap Bleddyn". Welsh Biography Online. National Library of Wales. 2009. Retrieved 2013-02-15.
  5. ^ Cawley 2012, "Miles of Gloucester" cites several primary sources including "XX", Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica, I, 1834, p. 168.
  6. ^ "Giraldus Cambrensis". Welsh Biography Online. National Library of Wales. 2009. Retrieved 2013-02-15.
  7. ^ Brut y Tywysogion pp. 136–137.
  8. ^ "A Christian presence since the 12th Century". St Mary's Church, Aberavon. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  9. ^ Brut y Tywysogion p. 138. "...there was a great pestilence throughout the island of Britain ... and that tempest killed innumerable people and many of the nobility and many princes, and spared none. That year, four days before May Day, died Rhys ap Gruffydd, Prince of Deheubarth and unconquered head of all Wales."
This page was last edited on 5 February 2019, at 19:16
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