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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1241 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1241
MCCXLI
Ab urbe condita1994
Armenian calendar690
ԹՎ ՈՂ
Assyrian calendar5991
Balinese saka calendar1162–1163
Bengali calendar648
Berber calendar2191
English Regnal year25 Hen. 3 – 26 Hen. 3
Buddhist calendar1785
Burmese calendar603
Byzantine calendar6749–6750
Chinese calendar庚子(Metal Rat)
3937 or 3877
    — to —
辛丑年 (Metal Ox)
3938 or 3878
Coptic calendar957–958
Discordian calendar2407
Ethiopian calendar1233–1234
Hebrew calendar5001–5002
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1297–1298
 - Shaka Samvat1162–1163
 - Kali Yuga4341–4342
Holocene calendar11241
Igbo calendar241–242
Iranian calendar619–620
Islamic calendar638–639
Japanese calendarNinji 2
(仁治2年)
Javanese calendar1150–1151
Julian calendar1241
MCCXLI
Korean calendar3574
Minguo calendar671 before ROC
民前671年
Nanakshahi calendar−227
Thai solar calendar1783–1784
Tibetan calendar阳金鼠年
(male Iron-Rat)
1367 or 986 or 214
    — to —
阴金牛年
(female Iron-Ox)
1368 or 987 or 215

Year 1241 (MCCXLI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Battle Of Mohi, 1241
  • ✪ Mongols: Western Expansion - Battles of Legnica and Mohi 1241 DOCUMENTARY
  • ✪ Candy Crush Level 1241 help w/audio tips, hints, tricks
  • ✪ Truth of God Broadcast 1239-1241 HD Live Stream!
  • ✪ Episodio #1241 Causa oculta de insomnio y calambres

Transcription

After a crushing defeat at the hands of Genghis Khan's Mongol army in the Battle of the Kalka river (in 1223), remnants of the Cuman nation fled towards Europe. Some of the refugees made it to Hungary and were allowed to settle within the kingdom. Over the next two decades they were largely integrated into the Hungarian army and converted to Christianity, by King Bela IV and his father Andrew II. Meanwhile, Genghis Khan had established a large empire, stretching from the Korean peninsula to the Caspian sea, which continued its' economic and territorial expansion under the rule of his son, Ogodei. Elected Supreme Khan in 1229, Ogodei is as pragmatic as his father, a proficient administrator, and a shrewd politician. He keeps things stable among the Mongol elite, overhauls the empire's bureaucracy, improves tax collection and the efficiency of government institutions. He also fully utilizes his generals, giving them operational autonomy on the strategic and tactical level, and heeds their advice on all military matters. This open-minded meritocratic approach enables Ogodei to wage war on all fronts and to greatly expand the empire he inherited from his father. In 1236 Ogodei sends Batu to oversee the invasion of Europe, accompanied by many notable Mongol commanders, but the overall command of the army is given to Subotai, arguably the greatest of Mongol commanders. The military campaign sees most of the Russian principalities either subjugated or vassalized, and by late 1240, Mongol envoys seek an audience with King Bela of Hungary, demanding the surrender of Cuman citizens. The envoys argue that the Cumans are Mongol slaves who escaped after their defeat in 1223, and later when their khanate was conquered in 1239. Seeing how, by now, thousands of Cuman troops are de-facto under direct command of the Hungarian Bela flatly refuses Mongol requests, giving Subotai his casus belli. Nicknamed "Bahadur", meaning "the Valiant", Subotai reaches the Hungarian and Polish border in early 1241, and stops to make final preparations. He divides the army, sending 10,000 horsemen towards the fragmented Polish lands and another 10,000 towards the Carpathian mountains, while he commands the remaining 30,000 Mongol troops directly into Hungary. King Bela mobilizes his army, including the Cumans, and orders them to assemble at Pest. But the mobilization doesn't go as planned. The Cuman Khan Koten was recently murdered while under personal protection of the King. Feeling betrayed, the Cumans desert the army and move southwards, pillaging and looting Hungarian lands as they go. To the north, the Mongol detatchment sweeps through Poland in a three-pronged attack, winning numerous smaller encounters and sacking many towns, thus tying down the northern European forces and preventing them from aiding Hungary. The invaders leave in their wake, scenes of apocalyptic destruction as they continue west towards Silesia. Around the same time, in the Carpathians, one half of the Mongol southern detatchment pushes through the heavily boobytrapped Radna pass, while the other half passes through the mountains further south and defeats a Hungarian-Transylvanian army, before both halves join forces and begin overruning Transylvania. Meanwhile in the center, after breaking through the fortified Verecke pass, Subotai's main army defeats Count Palatine, decimates his army, and advances towards central Hungary. Back in Pest, King Bela's mobilization plans have gone from bad, to worse. Many army contingents are unable to reach Pest. In Transylvania they are mostly trapped or overrun by Mongol forces. In the south of the country, the rampaging Cumans have tied down much of the Hungarian troops To make matters worse, many nobles simply hate King Bela due to his policies and refuse to answer his call to arms. As a result, Bela's army lacks the usually high numbers of heavy knights and their retinues, and is predominantly comprised of infantry. Severely undermanned, Bela frantically seeks help from other European rulers. In response to his request for aid, Frederick II, the Duke of Austria, arrives with his troops, along with a small contingent of Teutonic Knights and Knights Templar, but the Duke soon returns to Austria after winning a small encounter against Mongol raiders. With his army gathered, around 25,000 strong, King Bela marches out of Pest on April 2nd. Right after leaving the city, the Hungarians are met with the first of many Mongol raiding attacks as they advance to meet the main Mongol army, which is by now retreating, as Subotai wants to draw the Hungarians out to a more suitable location. Meanwhile, in Silesia, the invaders give up their attempts to take Wroclaw and rush to intercept the 8,000-strong army of Henry II, the Duke of Silesia, after learning that, in just two days time, he will be joined by a much larger army, commanded by King Wenceslaus of Bohemia. On April 9th, the Mongols close-in on Henry near Legnica and nearly wipe out his army. When Wenceslaus hears about Henry's defeat in the Battle of Legnica, he turns his army and heads back to Bohemia. A day later in Hungary, on April 10th, Bela's troops reach the flooded Sajo river after a week of forced marches and repeated attacks by Mongol raiders. But before continuing to pursue the invaders, the king decides to encamp south of the town of Mohi to allow further reinforcements and supplies to reach him. Hungarians finish setting up the camp by late morning. The troops are allowed to rest, after scouting reports indicate that the Mongols are not in the vicinity. By noon, the place is buzzing with activity. However, around mid-afternoon, a minor Mongol party is spotted near the Sajo river, but the flooded swampy terrain prevents Hungarian scouts from venturing further, leaving King Bela without any conclusive information on Mongol whereabouts. To make matters worse, Bela lacks a proper vantage point from the flat plain, and his line of sight is greatly restricted by the surrounding hills, heavy forest, and swampy terrain around the flooded rivers. Fearing a surprise Mongol attack, the King orders a fortification to be built - a wall of wagons chained together around the camp. But while the Hungarian leadership doesn't know where the enemy is, Subotai watches their every move from a nearby hill. Luckily for B�la, as the sunset approaches, an escaped Ruthenian slave reaches the Hungarian camp The King and his advisers learn that the Mongols plan to cross the Sajo river during the night. Immediately, the King's brother, Duke Coloman, takes a mounted contingent and rushes towards the bridge near Mohi, to guard it against a possible enemy crossing. They arrive around midnight only to discover that the Mongols already began crossing the bridge. Coloman wastes no time and orders an attack. After a fierce melee, his better-armoured retinue forces the Mongols to retreat. He leaves a small contingent of infantry and crossbowmen to guard the bridge, and returns to the main camp to celebrate with his men. But back across the river, Subotai changes tack and quickly sets his new plan into motion. Before first light, he orders Shiban to ride west and ford the river, while Subotai himself leads a larger detatchment south to find a spot where he can build a pontoon bridge. In the meantime, Batu is to cross the stone bridge with the main body of the army and hold position on the other side of the river until the two flanking detatchments get into position. Batu deploys siege engines close to the riverbank. Catapults hurl stones at the Hungarian crossbowmen, forcing them to back away from the river. With the crossbowmen neutralized, Batu's troops begin to cross. Unable to hold back the Mongol advance, Hungarian infantry is pushed off the bridge. As they keep fighting on the back foot, they spot the Mongol right flank approaching from the north. Together with their crossbowmen, Hungarian infantry immediately retreats back to the camp some time after sunrise. Once word reaches Bela that the Mongols are crossing, Duke Coloman, Archbishop Ugrin, and the Templar heavy cavalry, rush towards the bridge to intercept the invaders before they amass numbers on the western riverbank, and to also buy some time for the rest of the Hungarian army to assemble. But once the crossing point comes into view, the large number of Mongol troops alarms Coloman. Undeterred, the outnumbered Hungarians vigorously charge towards the enemy. This time, however, the invaders are better prepared. Even though Coloman's heavily armoured cavalry presses the enemy hard, the Mongols beat back the Hungarians due to the sheer number of troops that already crossed. Coloman orders a retreat, not wanting to risk being enveloped, and rides back to camp. After repelling the Hungarian charge, Batu finishes the crossing around early morning, and arrays his troops in battle formation, bracing himself for the main Hungarian attack. Upon returning to camp, Coloman finds that Bela hasn't issued proper orders for the army to prepare for battle. Incensed at his monarch's apparent incompetence, Archbishop Ugrin publically scolds the King. Nevertheless, Hungarian commanders order the troops to march north to meet the Mongols, despite being disorganized and not in battle formation. Not until some TWO HOURS later do the Hungarians finally form up on the battlefield.Seeing he is outnumbered, Batu is concerned that his light cavalry cannot withstand for long against a direct assault from the Hungarian heavy cavalry, and he hopes that Subotai will reach him soon. But Subotai is still in the process of crossing the river, after having to move through the heavy forest, away from the river bank in order to avoid detection, only to be further delayed while attempting to build the make-shift bridge across the overflowing river. Back at the bridgehead, King Bela orders his troops to charge the enemy. He directs the best troops at his disposal towards Batu�s position. Heavy fighting ensues, with the Hungarians getting the better of the action. Unable to maneuver with their backs against the river, lighter armoured Mongol troops are forced to stand and fight, taking many losses while being pushed further and further back. Such is the ferocity of the hand-to-hand combat that Batu himself comes under pressure, with 30 members of his personal bodyguard falling during the fighting. Finally, as noon rolls on, Subotai's flanking force appears. Seeing the Mongols to their rear, the Hungarian troops flee in panic back to their fortified camp. The invaders chase the enemy, striking down many Hungarian infantrymen on their way back. After reaching the camp, Hungarian commanders order the troops to take up defensive positions, but Subotai orders his troops not to attack the wagon fort directly. Instead, they surround the hapless Hungarians, and begin peppering the camp with showers of flaming arrows and Chinese firecrackers, while they wait for their siege-engines to arrive. Once brought up to the front line, the catapults launch barrages of missles, wreaking considerable havoc among the entrapped Hungarians. Throughout the afternoon, Hungarian commanders launch a few sorties in an attempt to drive the Mongols away, but the invaders simply gallop away from the attacks and regroup elsewhere on the camp perimeter. Finally, Hungarian morale breaks and they begin fleeing in large groups southwards, through a portion of the Mongol line, deliberately left open. Mongol archers harrass the fleeing enemy, killing scores of them during the pursuit. In the chaos, Archbishop Ugrin is killed and Duke Coloman is severely wounded, (he would die of his wounds several days later), and King Bela retreats with the remnants of his army. By nightfall, the Battle of the Sajo river, is over. Mongol losses were 3 to 5000 in total. But on the Hungarian side casualties were horrendous: nearly 85 to 90 percent of the army was killed or severely wounded. King Bela fled first to Bratislava, then to Hainburg on the Austrian border, and later to Dalmatia. He was captured by Duke Frederick II of Austria and was forced to cede three western counties to Austria before he was released. It would take many years for Hungary to recover from the devastation that the Mongols caused in the aftermath of the battle.

Contents

Events


Births

Deaths

References

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