To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The 1150s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1150, and ended on December 31, 1159.

Events

1150

By place

Byzantine Empire
Levant
Europe
England
Asia

By topic

Religion

1151

1152

By place

Levant
  • Spring – King Baldwin III and his mother, Queen Melisende, are called to intervene in an dispute between Baldwin's aunt Hodierna and her husband Raymond II, count of Tripoli. Hodierna decides to take a long holiday and travels to Jerusalem, while Raymond escorts her out on the road southwards. On the way back to Tripoli, a group of Assassins stabs him to death at the southern gate of the city. The garrison rushes to arms, and pours into the streets, slaying every Muslim in their way. But the Assassins manage to escape; nor is the motive of their act ever known.[23]
  • Baldwin III demands more authority and blames Manasses, ruler of Ramla, for interfering with his legal succession as ruler of Jerusalem. He demands a second coronation from Patriarch Fulcher separated from Melisende. Fulcher refuses, and as a kind of self-coronation Baldwin parades through the city streets with laurel wreaths on his head. Before the High Court (Haute Cour) the decision is made to divide the kingdom into two districts.
  • Baldwin III begins a civil war against Melisende and launches an invasion in the south. He captures the castle of Mirabel, which is defended by Manasses. Baldwin spares his life and is exiled, Nablus thereupon surrenders soon after. Melisende seeks refuge in the Tower of David with her younger son, the 16-year-old Amalric. Baldwin enters Jerusalem, he allows his mother to retain Nablus and the neighbourhood as her dower.[24]
  • Summer – Nur al-Din, Seljuk ruler (atabeg) of Aleppo, re-captures most of Crusader territory in the Orontes Valley – reducing the Principality of Antioch to little more than a narrow coastal strip along the Mediterranean. The County of Tripoli remains unchanged and Jerusalem remains an potential threat with ambitions to expand eastward, while also striving to dominate the Fatimid Caliphate in Egypt.[25]
Europe
England
  • April 6 – King Stephen has his nobles swear fealty to his son Eustace, as the rightful heir of the English throne. Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury, and other bishops refuses to crown Eustace favouring Henry of Anjou to claim the throne instead. Stephen confiscates their property and Theobald is forced into exile in Flanders.
Africa
Mesoamerica

By topic

Religion

1153

By place

Byzantine Empire
Levant
England
Europe
Asia
Africa

By topic

Demography
Religion

1154

By place

Levant
  • April 18Nur al-Din, Seljuk ruler (atabeg) of Aleppo, encamps before Damascus and overthrows Mujir al-Din by force with support of the Jewish citizens, who open de eastern gate to the bulk of his army. Mujir flees to the citadel, but capitulates after only a few hours. He is offered his life and the Emirate of Homs. A few weeks later Mujir is suspected of plotting with old friends in Damascus and is exiled to Baghdad. Damascus is annexed to Zangid territory and all of Syria is unified under the authority of Nur al-Din, from Edessa in the north to the Hauran to the south.[35]
  • Nur al-Din establishes the Al-Nuri Hospital in Damascus. The hospital has outpatient consulting rooms, a conference room, prayer hall, vestibules and bathrooms.[36]
Europe
Africa
England

By topic

Art and Culture
Religion

1155

By place

Europe
England
Asia

By topic

Religion

1156

By place

Levant
  • Spring – Raynald of Châtillon, prince of Antioch, makes an alliance with Thoros II (the Great), ruler of Armenian Cilicia. He invades Cyprus and conducts a widespread plundering of the Byzantine island.[45] The Crusaders and the Armenian forces march up and down the island robbing and pillaging every building, church and convent as well as shops and private houses. The crops are burnt; the herds are rounded up – together with all the population – and driven down to the coast. The massacre last about three weeks, on the rumor of an Byzantine fleet in the offing, Raynald gives the order for embarkation. The Crusader ships are loaded with booty, and every Cypriot is forced to ransom himself.[46]
Europe
The murder of St. Henry by Lalli, painting by Karl Anders Ekman (1854)
The murder of St. Henry by Lalli, painting by Karl Anders Ekman (1854)
Africa
  • The independent city-state Sfax revolts against Norman occupation. Almohad forces conquer the city and massacre the Christian citizens.[48]
Asia

By topic

Art and Science

1157

1158

By place

Byzantine Empire
  • Autumn – Emperor Manuel I (Komnenos) sets out from Constantinople at the head of a expeditionary army. He marches to Cillicia; and while the main army follows the coast road eastwards – Manuel hurries ahead with a force of only 500 cavalry. He manages to surprise King Thoros II (the Great), who has participated in the attack on Cyprus (see 1156). Thoros flees into the mountains and Cilicia is occupied by the Byzantines.[57]
Europe
England
Asia

By topic

Economy
Education
Religion

1159

Significant people

Births

1150

1151

1152

1153

1154

1155

1156

1157

Tomoe Gozen
Tomoe Gozen

1158

1159

Deaths

1150

1151

1152

1153

1154

1155

1156

1157

1158

1159


References

  1. ^ Joannes Cinnamus (1976). Deeds of John and Manuel Comnenus, p. 87. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-52155-0.
  2. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 267. ISBN 978-0-241-29876-3.
  3. ^ Smail, R. C. (1956). Crusading Warfare 1097–1193, p. 160. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 1-56619-769-4.
  4. ^ Gore, Rick (January 2001). "Ancient Ashkelon". National Geographic.
  5. ^ Knödler, Julia (2010). Germany: Narrative (1125–1250), p. 178. Clifford J. (ed). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, pp. 176–185. New York: Oxford University Press.
  6. ^ Nobel, Keith Allan (1994). Changing Doctoral Degrees: An International Perspective. Society for Research into Higher Education. ISBN 0335192130.
  7. ^ Joseph Rickaby (1908). Scholasticism. A. Constable. p. 23.
  8. ^ Panton, James (2011). Historical Dictionary of the British Monarchy. Lanham, MD and Plymouth, UK: Scarecrow Press. pp. 205–206. ISBN 9780810874978.
  9. ^ France, John (2001) [1999]. Western Warfare in the Age of the Crusades 1000-1300. Warfare and History. London: Routledge. p. 47. ISBN 9781135365073.
  10. ^ Dutton, Kathryn (2015-12-01). "Crusading and political culture under Geoffrey, count of Anjou and duke of Normandy, 1129–51". French History. 29 (4): 419–444. doi:10.1093/fh/crv014. ISSN 0269-1191.
  11. ^ Bombaci, Alessio (1959). "Summary report on the Italian Archaeological Mission in Afghanistan. Introduction to the Excavations at Ghazni". East and West. 10 (1/2): 3–22. ISSN 0012-8376. JSTOR 29754076.
  12. ^ Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O. Volume 2: F - O. Wesport, CT and London: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 392. ISBN 9780313335389. |volume= has extra text (help)
  13. ^ "Iceland: 10 little-known facts". Daily Telegraph. 2009-08-18. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2019-07-04.
  14. ^ "Books and Bookmen". Books and Bookmen. 21: ccxliv. 1975 – via Google Books.
  15. ^ Walbran, John Richard (1851). A Guide to Ripon, Harrogate, Fountains Abbey, Bolton Priory, and Several Places of Interest in Their Vicinity. Ripon and London: W. Harrison. pp. 113–114. 1151 Bolton Abbey.
  16. ^ F.R.Hist.S., George R. Potter M. A. Ph d F. S. A. (2009-12-15). "A note on the Devonshire papers at Ghatsworth House, Derbyshire". Journal of the Society of Archivists. 4 (2): 124–129. doi:10.1080/00379817009513947.
  17. ^ Farrer, William; Clay, Charles Travis (2013). Early Yorkshire Charters: Volume 7, The Honour of Skipton. Cambridge Library Collection. Volume 7: The Honour of Skipton. Cambridge, UK and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. xi. ISBN 9781108058308. |volume= has extra text (help)
  18. ^ Chen, Wai-Fah; Duan, Lian (2014). Handbook of International Bridge Engineering. Boca Raton, London and New York: CRC Press. p. 915. ISBN 9781439810309.
  19. ^ Schottenhammer, Angela (2001). The Emporium of the World: Maritime Quanzhou, 1000-1400. Leiden, Boston, Köln: BRILL. pp. 36–37. ISBN 9789004117730.
  20. ^ Deng, Yinke (2011). Ancient Chinese Inventions. Cambridge, UK and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 149. ISBN 9780521186926.
  21. ^ Scott, Tom (2012). The City-State in Europe, 1000-1600: Hinterland, Territory, Region. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 41. ISBN 9780199274604.
  22. ^ Born, Lester K. (November 1927). "What is the Podestà?". American Political Science Review. 21 (4): 863–871. doi:10.2307/1947600. ISSN 1537-5943. JSTOR 1947600. The first institution of the office of podestà was at Bologna in 1151
  23. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 271. ISBN 978-0-241-29876-3.
  24. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusaders. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, pp. 272–273. ISBN 978-0-241-29876-3.
  25. ^ David Nicolle (2011). Osprey - Command 12: Saladin, p. 6. ISBN 978-1-84908-317-1.
  26. ^ King John by Warren. Published by the University of California Press in 1961. p. 21
  27. ^ Picard, Christophe (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'Occident VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
  28. ^ Bradbury, Jim (2009). Stephen and Matilda: The Civil War of 1139–53, p. 180. Stroud, UK: The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7509-3793-1.
  29. ^ Duncan, A.A.M. (2002). The Kingship of the Scots 842–1292: Succession and Independence, p. 71. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. ISBN 0-7486-1626-8.
  30. ^ Bradbury, Jim (2009). Stephen and Matilda: The Civil War of 1139–53, p. 183. Stroud, UK: The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7509-3793-1.
  31. ^ Warren, W. L. (1961). King John. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 21.
  32. ^ Williams, John B. (1997). "The making of a crusade: the Genoese anti-Muslim attacks in Spain 1146–1148". Journal of Medieval History. 23 (1): 29–53. doi:10.1016/s0304-4181(96)00022-x.
  33. ^ Abulafia, David (1985). The Norman kingdom of Africa and the Norman expeditions to Majorca and the Muslim Mediterranean. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 978-0-85115-416-9.
  34. ^ Geography at about.com
  35. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of the Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 278. ISBN 978-0-241-29876-3.
  36. ^ "Al-Nuri hospital, in Damascus 1154". Archived from the original on November 7, 2011. Retrieved November 8, 2011.
  37. ^ Andrew Roberts (2008). Great Commanders of the Medieval World (454–1582), p. 130. ISBN 978-0-85738-589-5.
  38. ^ Gilbert Meynier (2010). L'Algérie cæur du Maghreb classique. De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658–1518). Paris: La Dïcouverte; p. 88.
  39. ^ Gilbert Meynier (2010). L'Algérie cœur du Maghreb classique. De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658–1518). Paris: La Découverte; p. 71.
  40. ^ Abels, Richard Philip; Bernard S. Bachrach (2001). The Normans and their adversaries at war. Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer. p. 100. ISBN 0-85115-847-1.
  41. ^ White, Graeme J. (2000). Restoration and Reform, 1153–1165: Recovery From Civil War in England, p. 5. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-55459-6.
  42. ^ Matthew, Donald (1992). The Norman kingdom of Sicily. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 228. ISBN 0-521-26911-3.
  43. ^ Kleinhenz, Christopher (2010). Medieval Italy: an encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. p. 95. ISBN 0-415-93930-5.
  44. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, General Chronology (Beginning of the Year).
  45. ^ Ghazarian, Jacob G. (2000). The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1393. Routledge Curzon (Taylor & Francis Group), 2000, Abingdon. ISBN 0-7007-1418-9.
  46. ^ Runciman, Steven (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 283. ISBN 978-0-241-29876-3.
  47. ^ Kleinhenz, Christopher (2010). Medieval Italy: an encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-415-93930-0.
  48. ^ Bresc, Henri (2003). "La Sicile et l'espace libyen au Moyen Age" (PDF). Retrieved 17 January 2012. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  49. ^ Syed, Muzaffar Husain; Akhtar, Syed Saud; Usmani, B. D. (2011). Concise History of Islam. New Delhi: Vij Books India Pvt Ltd. p. 56. ISBN 9789382573470.
  50. ^ Loud, Graham A.; Staub, Martial (2017). The Making of Medieval History. Suffolk and Rochester, NY: Boydell & Brewer. p. 168. ISBN 9781903153703.
  51. ^ Partenheimer, Luiz (2017). "A Success Story: Brandenburg in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries". In Loud, Graham A.; Schenk, Jochen (eds.). The Origins of the German Principalities, 1100-1350: Essays by German Historians. London and New York: Taylor & Francis. pp. 298–301. ISBN 9781317022008.
  52. ^ Ambraseys, Nicholas N. (2004). "The 12th century seismic paroxysm in the Middle East: a historical perspective" (PDF). Annals of Geophysics. Istituto Nazionale Geofisica e Vulcanologia. 47 (2–3): 733, 738, 745, 750.
  53. ^ Reilly, Bernard F. (1998). The Kingdom of León-Castilla Under King Alfonso VII, 1126-1157. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 136. ISBN 9780812234527.
  54. ^ Kohn, George C. (2007) [1986]. Dictionary of Wars. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 154. ISBN 9781438129167.
  55. ^ Holt, Richard (2000). "Society and Population 600 - 1300". In Palliser, D. M.; Clark, Peter; Daunton, Martin J. (eds.). The Cambridge Urban History of Britain. Volume: 600 - 1540. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 88. ISBN 9780521444613. |volume= has extra text (help)
  56. ^ Venning, Timothy (2013). The Kings & Queens of Wales. Stroud, UK: Amberley Publishing Limited. ISBN 9781445615776.
  57. ^ Runciman, Steven (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 286. ISBN 978-0-241-29876-3.
  58. ^ Comyn, Robert (1851). History of the Western Empire, from its Restoration by Charlemagne to the Accession of Charles V, p. 236–38.
  59. ^ Estow, Clara (1982). "The Economic Development of the Order of Calatrava, 1158–1366". Speculum. 57 (2): 267–291. doi:10.2307/2847457.
  60. ^ Picard, Christophe (2000). Le Portugal musulman (VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. L'Occident d'al-Andalus sous domination islamique. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose. p. 110. ISBN 2-7068-1398-9.
  61. ^ King John by Warren. Published by University of California Press in 1961. p. 27.
  62. ^ Barlow, Frank (April 1936). "The English, Norman, and French Councils Called to Deal with the Papal Schism of 1159". The English Historical Review. 51 (202): 264–268. doi:10.1093/ehr/LI.CCII.264. ISSN 0013-8266. JSTOR 553521. In September 1159 Pope Adrian IV died, and a double election was made to the Papacy. The imperialist faction chose Octavian, cardinal-priest of St. Cecilia, who took the title of Victor IV, and the church party Roland, the chancellor, who became known as Alexander III.
  63. ^ Dolan, Terence (2002) [1999]. "Chapter 8: Writing in Ireland". In Wallace, David (ed.). The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 208. ISBN 9780521890465.
  64. ^ Barnum, Samuel Weed (1876). Romanism as it is: An Exposition of the Roman Catholic System, for the Use of the American People Embracing a Full Account of Its Origin and Development at Rome and from Rome, Its Distinctive Features in Theory and Practice, Its Characteristic Tendencies and Aims, Its Statistical and Moral Position, and Its Special Relations to American Institutions and Liberties; the Whole Drawn from Official and Authentic Sources, and Enriched with Numerous Illustrations, Documentary, Historical, Descriptive, Anecdotical and Pictorial: Together with a Full and Complete Index, and an Appendix of Matters from 1871 to 1876. Hartford, CT: Connecticut Publishing Company. p. 11.
  65. ^ Febbraro, Flavio; Shwetje, Burkhard (2010). How To Read World History in Art: From the Code of Hammurabit to September 11. New York: Abrams Books. p. 100. ISBN 9780810996830.
  66. ^ Matsunami, Yoshihiro (1979). "Conflict within the Development of Buddhism". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. 6 (1/2): 329–345. doi:10.18874/jjrs.6.1-2.1979.329-345. ISSN 0304-1042. JSTOR 30233204. Wars, beginning with the Hogen rebellion of 1156 and the Heiji rebellion of 1159, occurred in rapid succession, bringing confusion and chaos to the people.
  67. ^ Selinger, Vyjayanthi R. (2013). "Chapter 1: Genpei Jōsuiki and the Historical Narration of the Genpei War". Authorizing the Shogunate: Ritual and Material Symbolism in the Literary Construction of Warrior Order. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 1. ISBN 9789004255333.
  68. ^ Abels, Richard Philip; Bachrach, Bernard S. (2001). The Normans and Their Adversaries at War: Essays in Memory of C. Warren Hollister. Woodbridge, UK, Rochester, NY: Boydell & Brewer. p. 99. ISBN 9780851158471.
  69. ^ Perkins, Kenneth J. (2016). Historical Dictionary of Tunisia (Third ed.). Lanham, MA, Boulder, CO, New York, London: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 197. ISBN 9781442273184.
  70. ^ Jacobs, Daniel; Morris, Peter (2001). The Rough Guide to Tunisia. London and New York: Rough Guides. p. 432. ISBN 9781858287485.
  71. ^ Tout, Thomas Frederick (1920). Chapters in the Administrative History of Mediaeval England: The Wardrobe, the Chamber and the Small Seals. Volume 1. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press. p. 88. |volume= has extra text (help)
  72. ^ Abbey, Chatteris (1999). The Cartulary of Chatteris Abbey. Woodbridge, UK and Rochester, NY: Boydell Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780851157504.
  73. ^ Karn, Nicholas (2007). "Nigel, bishop of Ely, and the restoration of the exchequer after the 'anarchy' of King Stephen's reign*". Historical Research. 80 (209): 299–314. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2281.2006.00392.x. ISSN 1468-2281. The author of the Liber Eliensis indicates that Richard was appointed in 1159, during the preparations for the Toulouse campaign
  74. ^ Taruskin, Richard (2016) [1996]. Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions, Volume One: A Biography of the Works Through Mavra. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press. p. 90. ISBN 9780520293489.
  75. ^ Romanova, Anna; Yakushenkova, Olesia (August 2012). Ching Chan, Selina (ed.). "Comparative Analysis of the Image of the Stranger in Chinese and Russian Discourse". Proceedings of the 7th Annual Conference of the Asian Studies Association. Hong Kong Shue Yan University - The Contemporary China Research Center: 1160. ISBN 978-988-18445-0-7. An example of Igor Svyatoslavich the Brave’s life (1151-1202) is a good example of such types of relations with some nomadic tribes that lived close to the borders of Russian Kingdom.
  76. ^ Vanina, Eugenia (2012). Medieval Indian Mindscapes: Space, Time, Society, Man. Delhi, India: Primus Books. p. 69. ISBN 9789380607191.
  77. ^ Gheorghe, Alexandra (2012). "Natsume Sōseki's Yume Jūya ("ten Nights of Dream") and the Anarchetype – a Different Approach". Interstudia (Revista Centrului Interdisciplinar de Studiu al Formelor Discursive Contemporane Interstud) (11/1): 122–130. ISSN 2065-3204. the narrator's unexpected meeting with the ancient wood carver, Unkei (1151 – 1223), famous for his sculptures from the temple Tōdai in Nara
  78. ^ Wispelwey, Berend (2013). Japanese Biographical Index. Munich, Germany: Walter de Gruyter. p. 983. ISBN 9783110947984.
  79. ^ Magill, Frank N. (1998). The Middle Ages: Dictionary of World Biography. London and New York: Routledge. p. 924. ISBN 9781136593130.
  80. ^ Howlett, Richard (2012). Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II, and Richard I. Volume 2. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. xlii. ISBN 9781108052276. |volume= has extra text (help)
  81. ^ Magill, Frank N. (2012) [1998]. Dictionary of World Biography. Volume 2: The Middle Ages. London and New York: Routledge. p. 663. ISBN 9781136593130. |volume= has extra text (help)
  82. ^ Loud, G. A. (2010). The Crusade of Frederick Barbarossa: The History of the Expedition of the Emperor Frederick and Related Texts. Farnham and Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 35. ISBN 9781472413963.
  83. ^ Huffman Jr., Domer J. (2016). Direct Ancestors of Domer J. Huffman, Jr: & D.J.'s Odds & Ends. Pittsburgh, PA: Dorrance Publishing. p. 295. ISBN 9781480926899.
  84. ^ Carter, Steven D. (2014). The Columbia Anthology of Japanese Essays: Zuihitsu from the Tenth to the Twenty-First Century. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 162. ISBN 9780231537551.
  85. ^ Henshall, K. (2012) [1999]. A History of Japan: From Stone Age to Superpower. London and New York: Springer. p. 32. ISBN 9780230369184.
  86. ^ Miyawaki–okada, Junko (1 January 2006). "The Japanese Origin of the Chinggis Khan Legends". Inner Asia. 8 (1): 123–34. doi:10.1163/146481706793646819. ISSN 2210-5018. Minamoto no Yoshitsune, or Gen Gikei as his name is in Sino-Japanese pronunciation, was born in 1159 as a half brother of Minamoto no Yoritomo
  87. ^ Crosby, Sumner McKnight; Hayward, Jane; Little, Charles T.; Wixom, William D. (1981). The Royal Abbey of Saint-Denis in the Time of Abbot Suger (1122-1151). New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 15. ISBN 9780870992612.
  88. ^ Grant, Lindy; Bates, David (1998). Abbot Suger of St-Denis: Church and State in Early Twelfth-Century France. London and New York: Routledge. pp. 286–287. ISBN 9781317899693.
  89. ^ Inglis, Erik (2015-09-01). "Remembering and Forgetting Suger at Saint-Denis, 1151–1534: An Abbot's Reputation between Memory and History". Gesta. 54 (2): 219–243. doi:10.1086/681955. ISSN 0016-920X. S2CID 163497330.
  90. ^ Phillips, Lawrence Barnett (1871). The Dictionary of Biographical Reference: Containing One Hundred Thousand Names, Together with a Classed Index of the Biographical Literature of Europe and America. London: S. Low, Son, & Marston. pp. 11. 1151 Adeliza of Louvain.
  91. ^ Dalton, Paul (2007). "The Date of Geoffrey Gaimar's "Estoire Des Engleis," the Connections of His Patrons, and the Politics of Stephen's Reign". The Chaucer Review. 42 (1): 23–47. doi:10.1353/cr.2007.0020. ISSN 0009-2002. JSTOR 25094383. A terminus ante quern of 1151 might appear at first sight to be supported by references to Adeliza of Louvain, who died in 1151
  92. ^ Panton, James (2011). Historical Dictionary of the British Monarchy. Lanham, MD and Plymouth, UK: Scarecrow Press. p. 18. ISBN 9780810874978.
  93. ^ Teunis, H. B. (2006). The Appeal to the Original Status: Social Justice in Anjou in the Eleventh Century. Hilversum, Netherlands: Uitgeverij Verloren. p. 128. ISBN 9789065509048.
  94. ^ Duffus Hardy, Thomas (1865). Rerum Britannicarum Medii Aevi Scriptores: Or Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland During the Middle Ages. Volume II: From A.D. 1066 to A.D. 1200. London: Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts. p. 245. |volume= has extra text (help)
  95. ^ Keefe, Thomas K. (1974). "Geoffrey Plantagenet's Will and the Angevin Succession*". Albion. 6 (3): 266–274. doi:10.2307/4048247. ISSN 0095-1390. JSTOR 4048247. Count Geoffrey Plantagenet's sudden death in September 1151 came at a most inopportune time for his eighteen-year-old son, Henry.
  96. ^ Chang, Kang-i Sun; Saussy, Haun; Kwong, Charles Yim-tze (1999). Women Writers of Traditional China: An Anthology of Poetry and Criticism. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. p. 89. ISBN 9780804732314.
  97. ^ Kramarae, Cheris; Spender, Dale (2004) [2000]. Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women: Global Women's Issues and Knowledge. New York and London: Routledge. p. 1259. ISBN 9781135963156.
  98. ^ Mann, Susan (2007). The Talented Women of the Zhang Family. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. pp. 167. ISBN 9780520250895. 1151 Li Qingzhao.
  99. ^ thePeerage.com – Person Page 407
  100. ^ "Roger II | Facts & Biography". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 14 July 2020.
  101. ^ Weis, Frederick Lewis (2002) [1950]. Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists who Came to America Before 1700: The Lineage of Alfred the Great, Charlemagne, Malcolm of Scotland, Robert the Strong, and Some of Their Descendants (Seventh ed.). Baltimore, MD: Genealogical Publishing Com. p. 129. ISBN 9780806313672.
  102. ^ Bauer, Susan Wise (2013). "Chapter Nineteen: Foreign Relations". The History of the Renaissance World: From the Rediscovery of Aristotle to the Conquest of Constantinople. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 134. ISBN 9780393240672.
  103. ^ Krattli, Edward C. (2014). Dowling, Timothy C. (ed.). Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond. Volume I: A - M. Santa Barbara, CA, Denver, CO and Oxford: ABC-CLIO. p. 250. ISBN 9781598849486. |volume= has extra text (help)
  104. ^ Flood, Timothy M. (2019). "Chapter 8. The Division of Leon-Castille and the Decline of the Almohads: 1157 - 1214". Rulers and Realms in Medieval Iberia, 711–1492. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. p. 109. ISBN 9781476633725.
  105. ^ Woodward, Bernard Bolingbroke; Cates, William Leist Readwin (1872). Encyclopaedia of Chronology: Historical and Biographical. London: Lee and Shepard. p. 418.
  106. ^ Wise, Leonard F.; Hansen, Mark Hillary; Egan, E. W. (2005) [1967]. Kings, Rulers, and Statesmen. New York: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. p. 218. ISBN 9781402725920.
  107. ^ Salamon, Maciej; Hardt, Matthias; Kruk, Mirosław Piotr; Sulikowska, Aleksandra (2012). "The Archetypal Crusader. Henry of Sandomierz, the Second Youngest Son of Bolesław III by Darius Von Güttner-Sporzyński". Rome, Constantinople and Newly-converted Europe: Archaeological and Historical Evidence. Kraków, Leipzig, Rzeszów, Warszawa: Geisteswissenschaftliches Zentrum Geschichte und Kultur Ostmitteleuropas. p. 215. ISBN 9788389499851. Within the decade of his birth Henry’s father died, and Henry’s elder half-brother Władysław ii Wygnaniec (the exile [1105-1159]) ascended the Polish throne.
  108. ^ Berend, Nora; Urbańczyk, Przemysław; Wiszewski, Przemysław (2013). Central Europe in the High Middle Ages: Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, c.900–c.1300. Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 175. ISBN 9781107651395.
  109. ^ Garland, Lynda (1999). Byzantine Empresses: Women and Power in Byzantium AD 527-1204. London and New York: Routledge. p. 201. ISBN 9781134756391.
  110. ^ Runciman, Steven (1954). A History of the Crusades: The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East, 1100-1187. University Press. p. 359. ISBN 9780521061636. About the end of the year 1159 the Empress Irene, born Bertha of Sulzbach, had died leaving only a daughter behind her.
  111. ^ Eden, Bradford Lee (2004). Kleinhenz, Christopher (ed.). Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia. New York and London: Routledge. p. 487. ISBN 9781135948801.
  112. ^ Williams, George L. (2004). Papal Genealogy: The Families and Descendants of the Popes. Jefferson, NC and London: McFarland. p. 25. ISBN 9780786420711.
  113. ^ Steinberg, S. H. (1991) [1939]. Historical Tables 58 BC – AD 1990 (12th ed.). London and Basigstoke: Springer. p. 45. ISBN 9781349127467.
  114. ^ Lingard, John (1874). "Chapter VIII: William I, Surnamed The Conqueror". The History of England: From the First Invasion by the Romans to the Accession of William and Mary in 1688. Dublin: James Duffy & Sons. p. 216.
  115. ^ McDougall, Sara (2017). Royal Bastards: The Birth of Illegitimacy, 800-1230. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 202. ISBN 9780198785828. In 1159 William "Longsword", count of Boulogne, earl of Warenne by right of his wife, the son of King Stephen of England and his wife Matilda of Boulogne, died without issue.
  116. ^ Hillenbrand, Carol (2003). "The Imprisonment of Reynald at Châtillon". In Robinson, Chase F. (ed.). Texts, documents, and artefacts [electronic resource]: Islamic studies in honour of D.S. Richards. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 91. ISBN 9789004128644.
  117. ^ Dashdondog, Bayarsaikhan (2011). The Mongols and the Armenians (1220-1335). Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 36. ISBN 9789004186354.
  118. ^ Slack, Corliss K. (2003). The A to Z of the Crusades. Lanham, MD and Plymouth, UK: Scarecrow Press. p. 84. ISBN 9780810863316.
This page was last edited on 7 August 2020, at 10:23
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.