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Discovered byErnst Wilhelm Leberecht Tempel
Discovery dateJuly 4, 1873
1873 II; 1878 III; 1894 III;
1899 IV; 1904 III; 1915 I;
1920 II; 1925 IV; 1930 VII;
1946 III; 1951 VIII; 1957 II;
1962 VI; 1967 X; 1972 X;
1978 V; 1983 X; 1988 XIV;
1994 VII;
Orbital characteristics A
EpochDecember 4, 2015
(JD 2457360.5)
Aphelion4.711 AU
Perihelion1.4176 AU
Semi-major axis3.064 AU
Orbital period5.36 yr
Dimensions10.6 km[6]
Last perihelion14 November 2015[1][2]
4 July 2010[3][4]
Next perihelion2021-Mar-24[5]

10P/Tempel, also known as Tempel 2, is a periodic Jupiter-family comet in the Solar System. It was discovered in 1873 and has an orbital period of 5.3 years.[1]

The comet nucleus is estimated to be 10.6 kilometers in diameter with a low albedo of 0.022.[6] The nucleus is dark because hydrocarbons on the surface have been converted to a dark, tar like substance by solar ultraviolet radiation.

During the 2010 apparition the comet brightened to about apparent magnitude 8.[3] It next comes to perihelion (closest approach to the Sun) on 14 November 2015 when it should brighten to around magnitude 11.[3]

The most favorable apparition of 10P/Tempel 2 was in 1925 when it came within 0.35 AU (52,000,000 km; 33,000,000 mi) of Earth with an apparent magnitude of 6.5.[7] On August 3, 2026, comet Tempel 2 is expected to have another close pass within about 0.41 AU of Earth.[8]

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  • ✪ Serce Chopina - cały film
  • ✪ Maths - भारतीय रुपया और पैसा What is Money - Hindi


CHOPIN'S HEART a Piotr Szalsza film ‘For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.’ The Gospel According to St. Matthew His voice was so very weak that Luclwika had to lean over the bed to grasp particularworcls He said how much he loved her. missed his mother and Warsaw. Knowing how little time was left, he asked the sisters to bury him here in Paris, so that they could perform, in the St Madeleine Church. the Requiem by Mozart. whom he loved so much “Let them drop a bag of soil into the grave, which I was given as a keepsake on leaving Warsaw ’ ‘Though you leave our lands. the heart with us stays.” A quotation from a Cantata his friends were singing when he was leaving his home town on Nov. 2. 1830 Some day lgnacy Paderewski would say. ‘Chopin parted with his homeland for ever. He left, but not alone. taking alohg, what Mickiewicz defines as Genius Loci, but we'd like to call Genius Patriae, the spirit of his homeland ’ '0 heart. my heart.” the dying man thought and asked his sister: ‘When this cough strangles me. l beg you to open up my body, so that I'm not buried alive. Let them take out my heart. and you take it home. to Warsaw.” ‘l was dreaming of getting into a carriage and my eyelids were drooping. I m sitting in the carriage and ask. as they're riding across forests and towns of brick and stone, ‘Where are you taking me. devils?” “To Poland. ” they say “And where's that Poland. do you know?” You could look for this Poland all over the world, bride, and wouldn't find her anywhere. Why looking. then? There is this cage. see? Put your hand under your breast This corset is too tight. though. And it's knocking in there? Why this lecture? It s a heart. And that's Poland all right.” ‘I hardly recollect how they sing in my homeland. But where is my art gone? Where have l wasted my heart?” Avarsovian by origin. a Pole by heart. and a citizen of the world thanks to his talent. Frederic Chopin departed this world. He'd spent nearly all of his life away from home for the sake of his homeland. the greatest thing that an expatriate can achieve. The funeral was held in the famous Pere-Lachaise The entire artistic Paris bewailed the death of great Chopin. lt bewailed what it had lost. which Heinrich Heine so aptly described: ‘The delight Chopin brings about improvising on the piano is beyond compare. He's neither Polish, French. or German then. betraying a far superior origin His homeland seems to be the one of Raphael. Mozart. and Goethe.” Ludwika would fulfill all her brother's wishes Two months after his death. at the start of Jan. 1850, she returned to Poland by train. During the trip she d incur moments of particular tension. Crossing the Austro-Hungarian and Russian border, she faced a customs inspection. No one could empathize with the feelings of a woman. who was smuggling a small jar with the embalmed heart of her brother Frederic in the folds of her dress. Somewhere here. on Warsaw cobblestones. lay Chopin s shattered piano. thrown out the window by Russian soldiers. It was during the January Uprising of 1863. Czarists officials knew all too well how Chopin s music fueled patriotic feelings and made fists clench. As Robert Schumann put it, ‘It's cannons hidden in flowers.” The instrument thrown out the window. which Frederic Chopin used to play in his youth, is not just an act of destruction. but assumes the proportions of a symbol. Cyprian Kamil Norwid. a composer s friend in Paris, described the event the most beautifully: Frederic, look over there — That's Warsaw. The buildings caught fire... / see, by the smoke almost blind. as they drag along the gallery a black object coffin-like. Your piano has come crashlng down.’ The onel... that lauded Poland to the skies Of her omni-perfect story. Celebrated in a hymn of delight. Poland of transformed simple folk... The deal‘ stones moaned.‘ An ideal hit cobblestones. First. the urn Ludwika brought was placed in the catacombs of Warsaw s Sacred Cross Church. close to Chopin's last apartment. Antoni Jedrzejewicz. the composer's nephew, tried to have the precious relic set in one of the church's columns. He reminisces, “The point was to do it quietly without much ado, as any ceremonious setting was out of the question for the time being. . Which happened in the quiet of the evening with barely a few people present Once the hole in the wall with the urn was bricked in. the family came up with an idea to erect an appropriate monument at that very spot Eventually. a beautiful monument of Marconi composition. made by Andrzei Pruszynski, was bought by the Warsaw Music Society. After 1880, the discipline and repression of the Poles softened And it was the Russian composer Miliush Balakirev who helped unveil the Frederic Chopin Monument in Zelazowa Wola in a ceremonious way In the 1830's, the great poet Heinrich Heine aptly wrote: ‘The love of homeland is a great feeling with the Poles. with the other feelings connected to it, just like rivers flow into the ocean. What bred this love were fights for independence. historical reminiscences. and misfortune. It is burning with the same flame, as in the times of Kosciusko, maybe even more fervently now The Poles worship everything of their homeland to a fault Just like a dying man. in a convulsive terror shudders at death. so their soul defends itself and rebels against the idea of annihilation of their nationality. What an awful sight are those mortal convulsions of the Polish national organisml Yet all nations of Europe and the whole world will have to survive this mortal strife to breed life from death!” The year 1919. The Great War over. as a result of the Treaty of Versailles. Poland regains independence after 125 years of slavery. In the devastated country. the nation is tired but happy and full of optimism. Comes the time of reconstruction. Of culture too On Nov. 14, 1926. in Warsaw”s Lazienki Park, a ceremony is held to unveil a huge Chopin Monument. sculpted by Waclaw Szymanowski This was a token of gratitude from the people. whom Frederic's music kept company at their direst moments, gave their morale a boost. and helped survive. The Poles knew how painfully Chopin had suffered the tragedy of his enslaved nation. responding impulsively to developments in Poland. Just like in 1830 when he left Poland for ever and. in Stuttgart. learned about the bloody suppression of the November Uprising ‘O God. are You there?| You are, but aren”t revenging Yourself?| Haven”t You had enough of Muscovite crimes? Or are you a Muscovite Yourself! They burned down the city! Why couldn't I kill one Muscovite at least?! The admiration and affection for Frederic Chopin”s music. isn't an exclusively Polish domain. The great German composer Robert Schumann wrote once “Mesdames et Messieurs, chapeaux bas. Voila un genie! Chopin is and will remain the most daring and proudest poetic genius of his time.” It could seem that all Schumann's compatriots share his opinion. In the musical life of Germany. Chopin s pieces were often and willingly performed by the greatest virtuosos there Dresden — the capital of Saxony. It's the 125th birth anniversary of Frederic Chopin on Feb. 22. 1935. On this occasion, in the city center is held a solemn ceremony of unveiling a bust of the Polish composer The then mayors of Warsaw and Dresden are present The then mayors of Warsaw and Dresden are present and luminaries of the political life of the Third Reich will give tribute to the great Pole with the Hitler salute A solemn and ceremonious atmosphere sets in Those gathered seem to feel the solemnity of the situation. We appear to be witnessing a historical event. Yet some are intrigued by the presence of a newsreel crew What thoughts are hidden behind the glasses of the smiling participant? Chopin Celebrations in Dresden The street ceremony over, a gala concert is performed in the town hall. The Nazi dignitary will honor and greet the Polish composer with a loud HEIL Cl-lOF’IlV.l At the Dresden train station. the Polish delegation is ceremoniously bid farewell with the Hitler greeting Sieg Heill... .. Be seeing you .. .. in Warsaw ..? /"m announcing red alert for the city of Warsaw. The Dresden hosts delivered on their promise. Another meeting happened 4 years later. On Sep. 1, 1939. the Nazi Germany attacks Poland. beginning a 5-year-long bloody occupation night. By the year 1945, Poland has lost over 6 million of her citizens and 38% of her national wealth. Warsaw was practically razed to the ground. The essential thing about the occupier's actions were constant and consistent attempts at breaking the Polish spirit. Not only a political terror but a moral one too. The Nazi occupation marked the end of Polish culture and identity. There were no libraries. theaters. movie houses. radio, or anything. All that was forbidden under the penalty of concentration camps. The point was to exterminate the Polish nation. You couldn't do it at once. of course. but the Germans had a specific plan. As it happens, I read the Ost Plan during the Nllrnberg Trial The point was to liquidate the Polish intelligentsia. the Polish creative forces, that is. after a number of years. As they'd say. ‘Well handle the hoipolloi somehow. One of the most brutal and strangest resolves of the Warsaw District Governor was to forbid playing Chopin. as hes a patriotic composer, who stirs up the Polish people against the Germans. And it was forbidden. even in private apartments. If an informer said that Chopin was played in a particular apartment, the Gestapo immediately arrived there lt wasn t just a formal order: ‘Don”t play him in the Philharmonic Hall. or at home ” Let's Chopin disappear. as he was deemed dangerous, because he held the Poles in a state of patriotic readiness. Jewish and anti-state music, along with Polish marches. Jewish and anti-state music, along with Polish marches. folk and patriotic songs are forbidden to be performed Likewise any music whose national traditions could support the spirit or wake it up. The Polish people did not knuckle under. of course. as they didn t militarily. There was the Home Army fighting in the woods To help culture endure. there were clandestine classes and clandestine concerts. It was a kind of nationwide conspiracy There were apartments. where Chopin was to be played one day and Moniuszko and even Beethoven the next. We weren't fighting German music. which was. to us, as important as the Polish one Who could've had an idea not to play Beethoven or Mozart? The ideologues of Nazism understood Robert Schumann well, who once said about Chopin s music that it was Cannons hidden in flowers. Hence the composer s monument was removed from the Lazienki Park. On May 31.1940. the monument was blown up, cut into pieces and carted away into the unknown In 1945, only a replica of Chopin”s head was found in ajunkyard in Wroclaw. And an imbeitlnent hand Assaulted your ma/esty He shattered your mute Figure into potsherds. "lf l die, pierce through my heart, not to bury me alive,you said. And you are one big wound today Your last will has been fulfilled, As the whole earth is your heart Pierced through. And you're alive, not buried In the stormy abyss Of clouds and thunders, Playing — you're God-like! The Great Funeral March For the disaster of the world. Nazi apparatchiks could not forbid the German nation to listen to Chopin's music. let alone lead them to believe that it was musically or racially worthless Therefore. the court musicologist Ernst Krienitz at Goebbels s disposal. commissioned by the Propaganda Ministry of the Reich would claim. “Chopin is the only Polish composer who made it to the pantheon of the immortals. Does he really represent Polishness, though? It's obvious that he would never have achieved his maturity but for the influence of the German Romanticism. his adoration of Bach and German culture in general. It is equally obvious that without German pianists and artists. he would never have become so immensely popular.” The governor of the so-called General-Gouvernement Dr Hans Frank was an educated and cultured man To relax. he liked to play the piano. Chopin too Talking to Curzio Malaparte. Frank said. ‘Chopin. an angel of white wings! You know that the Poles don't like Chopin? At a recent concert in his honor in Krakow, the audience did not applaud. Not a single applause, or an impulse of the heart toward this white angel of music. I was watching that numerous audience, silent and motionless. and tried to grasp the reason for the silence I saw thousands of glistening eyes, pale foreheads. warm from the passionate caresses of Chopin's wings. their lips bloodless after the sad but so sweet a kiss of the white angel. and deep inside I tried to justify that silent, stony, ghastly immobility of the listeners. But I'll conquer this nation with art. poetry. and music! But I'll conquer this nation with art. poetry. and music! I ll be a Polish Orpheus! Ha. ha, ha. a Polish Orpheus!” The terror of the occupier left no shadow of a doubt: The point was to physically and spiritually destroy Polishness and Slavism It was a racial war! Where were those German music lovers, who in such numbers had taken part in the Dresden celebration of 1935? They were silent. They neither knew nor wanted to know. merged with the mass of blind followers of Fascism and der Fuhrer. lt”s Aug. 1, 1944 A rising breaks out in Warsaw. Hitler orders to crush the army of fighting Poles and then to raze the capital to the ground. Fighting in the entire city is merciless and bloody. It can move at any moment to the area near the Sacred Cross Church The urn with Frederic Chopin s heart is in danger. And then something happened to make us believe that there could be one righteous among the hordes of tormentors and persecutors. FatherAIojzy Niedziela lives in Krakow now. He was staying at the Sacred Cross Church during the Rising That”s where the German military chaplain Father Schulze showed up. I was staying at the Sacred Cross Church in Warsaw in Aug 1944. And in those days I experienced something odd that should be made public. as there are a lot of nonobjective claims concerning the heart of Frederic Chopin. It was ca the 8th . 9th . or maybe the 10th ofAugust. With two colleagues. no longer alive. in the upper church. I witnessed the following event: A German officer with several soldiers entered the church. He introduced himself as a military chaplain and asked if he could take out the case with Frederic Chopin s heart He told us meaningfully that he was a great Chopin s music aficionado and. on the other hand, warned us that sooner or later there would be a decisive battle over the church and during the fighting that very national relic. as he called it. could be destroyed. That's why he asked if he could take out and pass it on to the church authorities. This surprised us a little. Since he promised, however. to pass it on to the church authorities. we complied. As a matter of fact. a dozen days after Father Schulze”s visit, As a matter of fact. a dozen days after Father Schulze”s visit, the fighting in the district where the church was flared up with ever more dogged determination and the church shared the fate of the city. burned and blown up. We are certainly grateful that there was a man who wanted to save it and he succeeded. Various versions of the event cropped up later. however. among them the one of insurgents, who'd pulled out the case during the fighting over the church. As a witness to history, however. I testify that it happened the way I'm telling you about. I must emphasize that I corrected the different versions in magazines and daily papers. like the Express Wieczorny. that it'd been a military chaplain of the Wehrmacht who did it But nobody wanted to hear about it in those days and lwas even questioned by the then police authorities and the Security Service if I could really testify that it'd been a German officer and soldiers who helped save Frederic Chopin”s heart.” Father Schultze pledged to save the national memento, the urn with Frederic Chopin's heart, and pass it on to trustworthy hands The German command decided to take advantage of the matter for propaganda purposes. The September Nazi papers featured articles about ‘brave German soldiers, who, risking their lives, saved treasures of Polish culture and helped out the defenseless Warsaw population.‘ They tried to make a political fortune on this Envoys of a German general came to the Archbishop of Warsaw. Antoni Szlagowski. residing in Milanowek to inform him of their intention to hand over to him the urn with the heart. An eye witness, the mitered prelate Stanislaw Markowski. the then secretary to the Archbishop. reminisces: On Sep. 9, 1944. at 3 p m two private cars arrived at the presbytery. Three men got out. Two in uniforms and the 3rd in mufti. Noticing them, I had no doubts they wanted to see the archbishop They were Germans and they asked. “Does the bishop from Warsaw live here?” “Yes, he does.” - May we see him? - What about? In the ruins ofa church in Warsaw. our soldiers found Chopin s heart. I know it's a great memento to the Poles and very dear. We decided to save it and return Chopin”s heart to the most trustworthy hands. In this case. the bishop from Warsaw. The archbishop will be happy to see you about this matter. I brought them here. In this living room. I brought them here. In this living room. changed into a private chapel of the archbishop. they sat down. behaving very well. waiting. Iwent to his study to announce that 3 Germans had arrived about Chopin's heart and ask for a conversation. ‘I'll be happy to receive them ” So the archbishop put on his chain. ring. and vestments to appear his formal best for the sake of authority. When he entered the room. they rose. ll repeated the matter and they asked. - Will you accept Chopin's heart? - Certainly - And he reached out his hands. “The heart is in Warsaw You will go there to get it.” ‘No means of transportation!” ‘We have come with a car, especially for Your Eminence.” ‘If so, lets go.” And he rose to get dressed for the ride. That act of good will” of giving a Polish Archbishop the heart hardly stopped the occupiers from a permanent destroying of Warsaw and evicting hundreds of thousands to the transitional camp in Pruszkow The tragic events of the summer and fall of 1944 were haunting Father Schultze. His heart must”ve been overflowing with the feeling of shame and regret. With his deeds he was trying at a small degree to expiate the trespasses of his countrymen ‘Along with Father Antoni Czapla we received a signal that a German military chaplain in Zyrardow wanted to talk to us. We came to him to hear that the Germans had blown up the bell tower of the Sacred Cross Church and it was feared the bell tower of the Sacred Cross Church and it was feared they could blow up the rest of the church walls. He asked us if we had something there that should be saved. There was a safe in the sacristy with chalices, a monstrance, and the other liturgical vessels He promised to recover all those things. We gave him a drawing to show where the safe was. Anyway. along with another German Hauptmannscheue by name, or Scheu from Pruszkow and Polish laborers. they gutted that safe and brought all those things to Grodzisk. I confirmed the list of the things that were there They”d done it very neatly Each thing was wrapped up in paper with its serial number It was a military chaplain by the name of Schultze. He must've been driven by immense friendliness toward us Poles, priests in particular. The Sisters of Charity at 35 Tamka St in Warsaw. could say more about him. if they still remember him.” ‘The first account of the military chaplain Schultze dates back to Sep. 12. 1944. That‘s when Father Schultze came to the Sisters of Charity on Tamka St to tell them what had happened to those driven out of Warsaw on Sept. 6. He was the one who said in one of our conversations that all male Poles. aged 18 -40. were to be killed on Hitler s orders. I chanced upon Mother Klaudia s account, Mother Superior of the Nuns of the Visitation. who described what was going on in their convent at the time of the Rising. And she wrote there very clearly that Father Schultze was a great admirer of the Poles. He regretted all that was happening in Warsaw during the Rising. and wanted to save whatever equipment there was in churches that could be salvaged.‘ Warsaw in January 1945. The city had been devastated by the Germans in 83%. ‘It was a shocking feeling to enter Warsaw. unaware where I was. What I saw then nearly drove me crazy. I couldn't recognize streets or houses. their roofs hanging in the air. unsupported. The devastated churches. . The houses were ruined so much that they fell one on top of another like people, their arms linked across the street I admit telling my friends that tears were streaming from my eyes. How couldn‘t you cry over the fate of the nation and the city?” The consecration of the figure of Christ in front of the Sacred Cross Church was one of the first celebrations held in the tormented and devastated city. It was to this nonexistent city that her recently driven out population was returning One day a public notice featured on the mutilated Warsaw walls: “WARSAWI Frederic Chopin's heart was rested in your walls for years. Stored with loving care outside the city. it is returning to its former resting place. the walls of the Sacred Cross Church. on Oct. 17." When about half a century later. I recollect Oct 17, 1945. it still seems unreal and terribly romantic. I still see the sight in front of my eyes after all those years, as ifa film was running in my head. That was a great event to all. politicians and ordinary folk. to young Chopin fans who flocked from everywhere to take part in the ceremony. to touch. . Those who”d wanted to destroy the memory of Chopin were thus condemned, and Polish patriots had one more reason to demonstrate their attachment to all the sacred symbols of the nation right after the war. And Chopin was such a symbol. and his heart in particular is a sacred thing in Poland. The hearts of great men have always been buried separated from their bodies. Returning from those celebrations in the evening. moved deep down by what my eyes had seen, Iwent to the hotel to rest and asked the porter as usual: ‘Any calls for me. or messages?” “None whatsoever. Why, Mr. Chopin has been in town today.” he told me Flames will consume the hallowed records, Thieves will plunder the treasures, But the song will come out unscathed. Adam Mickiewicz Subtitles by Jerzy Siemasz


  1. ^ a b "10P/Tempel Orbit". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 2014-11-06.
  2. ^ 10P at Kazuo Kinoshita home page
  3. ^ a b c Seiichi Yoshida (2008-01-27). "10P/Tempel 2". Seiichi Yoshida's Comet Catalog. Retrieved 2010-02-24.
  4. ^ Syuichi Nakano (2007-04-10). "10P/Tempel 2 (NK 1460)". OAA Computing and Minor Planet Sections. Retrieved 2010-02-24.
  5. ^ Horizons output. "Observer Table for 10P/Tempel". Retrieved 2011-07-24. (Observer Location:@sun)
  6. ^ a b "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 10P/Tempel 2" (last observation: 2014-03-29; arc: 67.91 years). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 2010-02-24.
  7. ^ Kronk, Gary W. "10P/Tempel 2". Archived from the original on 22 February 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-24. (Cometography Home Page)
  8. ^ "JPL Close-Approach Data: 10P/Tempel 2" (last observation: 2014-03-29; arc: 67.91 years). Retrieved 2010-02-24.

External links

Numbered comets
10P/Tempel Next

This page was last edited on 26 February 2019, at 08:26
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