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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1061 Paeonia
Discovery [1]
Discovered byK. Reinmuth
Discovery siteHeidelberg Obs.
Discovery date10 October 1925
Designations
MPC designation(1061) Paeonia
Named after
peony (flowering plant)[2]
1925 TB · 1925 XB
1936 SM · 1942 XD
main-belt[1][3] · (outer)
Themis[4] · background [5]
Orbital characteristics[3]
Epoch 23 March 2018 (JD 2458200.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc91.72 yr (33,502 d)
Aphelion3.7986 AU
Perihelion2.4505 AU
3.1245 AU
Eccentricity0.2157
5.52 yr (2,017 d)
249.51°
0° 10m 42.6s / day
Inclination2.4993°
90.923°
306.27°
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
17.95 km (calculated)[4]
18.63±5.52 km[6]
23.092±0.151 km[7][8]
h (at least)[9]
7.9971±0.0001 h[a]
7.99710±0.00001 h[10]
0.048±0.007[7]
0.0483±0.0070[8]
0.08 (assumed)[4]
0.09±0.06[6]
Tholen = C[3][4]
B–V = 0.676[3]
U–B = 0.337[3]
11.80[6] · 12.01±0.29[11]
12.09[3][4][8]

1061 Paeonia, provisional designation 1925 TB, is a carbonaceous background asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 19 km (12 mi) in diameter. It was discovered on 10 October 1925, by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth at the Heidelberg-Königstuhl State Observatory in Heidelberg, Germany.[1] The C-type asteroid has a rotation period of 8 hours and is likely very elongated.[4] It was named after the flowering plant Paeonia, commonly known as peony.[2]

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Italy has been taken from the word Italia which means calf land, which is probably because the Southern Italian tribes had bull as their symbol. Italy is officially known as ‘Repubblica Italiana’and almost four-fifths of it is covered with hills and mountains. The country comprises of more masterpieces per square mile than any other country across the globe. It is also home to one of the oldest universities situated in Rome which was founded in 1303 A.D. and is usually referred to as ‘La Sapienza’, there are around 150,000 students in the university. Italian history is one of the histories that still have remembrances from its way past. Besides wars and battles there also has been time of peace and growth among the people of Italy. Some of the world's most renowned and famous artists whose works are world famous belong to Italy. This is the place where art and literature is appreciated and it is here that you will find the preserved treasures from the renaissance period. Every piece of art has a story to say and the intriguing beauty never fails to capture the heart of the beholder. Italy is now ranked among the leading countries in world exports and trade. It has a huge agricultural sector and it also happens to be the world’s largest wine producer. The country has a thriving population with a dense history as for its past. Geographical Layout The Italian or the Apennine Peninsula is one of the three peninsulas of Southern Europe (the other two being the Iberian Peninsula and Balkan Peninsula), covering 1,000 km from the Po Valley in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. The peninsula is bounded by the Adriatic Sea on the east, Tyrrhenian Sea on the west and the Ionian Sea on the south. The internal part of the Apennine Peninsula comprises of the Apennine Mountains, from which it gets its name, the northern part is mostly plains and the coasts are lined with cliffs. Italy is one of the most important countries that lies in the southern central Europe. It inhabits peninsula jutting deep into the Mediterranean Sea. Italy’s holds within itself some of the globes most diverse and picturesque magnificence and is often defined as a country shaped like a boot. You also get to see the world’s most rocky mountains here; the Alps. The highest peaks are the along Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa. Both of these mountains are in the most happening cities - France and Switzerland. Towards the south is Tuscany which is Italy’s best region. Overseeing the Alpine lakes and the valleys of glacier expanding to Piedmont and Po River are the western Alps. The Apennine Range exudes from the central Alps and broadens near Rome covering almost the whole of Italian peninsula. The Apennines taper down towards the south of Rome and is fringed by two wide coastal plains, one faces the Adriatic Sea and the other faces the Tyrrhenian Sea. Most of the lower Apennine chain is almost wasteland and is home to some of the rare animal species like the roe deer, red deer, Marsican wild boar. Some of the rare plant species like wild peony, ghost orchid, Marsican iris and lady’s slipper orchid. There are many active volcanoes such as Vesuvius in the southern Apennines. Sicily and Sardinia lie in the bottom of Italy, in the Mediterranean Sea. Prehistory Monte Poggiolo is the where the first hominins settled 850,000 years back. By the Bronze Age four waves of migration occurred in the territories of Sardinia, Sicily, Tuscany, Lombardy, Liguria, South Tyrol, Capua, Campania, Salerno and Sala Consilina. By the 8th century BC Italy was in the proto-historical period and Phoenician script was introduced among the inhabitants. Etruscan Civilization The origin of the Etruscans is not known exactly. However, their civilization flourished after 800 BC in central Italy. The only connection that can be found is that they are an indigenous tribe and come from Villanovan culture. A recent study concluded that the Etruscans could be a result of an invasion from Near East. The Etruscans are the nearest to a Neolithic population from Central Europe. They concentrated on expanding their civilization in the Apennines. They has a strong political structure, although similar but much more refined than the Magna Greece. There was a non Indo-European language that was used as mode of communication. They followed monogamy. Mining of iron and copper and their trade led to the growth and prosperity of the Etruscans who expanded their hold not only in the Italian peninsula but also towards the western parts of Mediterranean Sea. Around the 6th century BC the Phoceans who were a Greek tribe settled along the coast of Catalonia, France and Corsica. The interests of the Etruscans conflicted with those of the Greeks. The Carthaginians also did not favour the Greeks and made allies with the Etruscans. Battle of Alalia was fought by Carthaginians and Etruscans who fought as allies against the Greeks in 540 BC. Although it was an indecisive battle Etruria relegated and moved towards the Tyrrhenian Sea and ruled on Corsica whereas Carthaginians expanded over the Greek territories. After the 5th century Etruria began to decline when they lost their territories in the south. Carthage did not survive long and was defeated by Magna Graecia in 480 BC, Etruscans lost their ally which left them with lesser power. Battle of Cumae in 474 BC weakened the Etruria even more, as they lost Campania and Latium to the Samnites and Romans. Gallic invasions snatched away their rule from the Adriatic coast on Po Valley. The Etruscans were soon taken over by Romans who then amalgamated of what was left of Etruria in the Roman Empire. Magna Graecia The Greeks started settling in the southern parts of Italy, eastern Libya, eastern coat of Black Sea and Marseille. The extended settlements were a result of over-population and even famine. The area of Sicily and the foot of Italy were referred to as Magna Graecia by the Romans. Magna Graecia in Latin meant Great Greece. The name was given so because of the dense population of Greeks in the area. When this colonization happened there was much changes that took place in the Greek culture especially in the dialects, traditions and religion of the Ancient Greek. The interaction of Italian and Latin civilizations led to the birth of original Hellenic civilization. The most significant cultural transfer was the Cumaean variation of Greek alphabet that was adopted by the Etruscans. The old alphabet of the Italians slowly advanced to modern Latin alphabet which is now being used as the most common alphabet across the globe. Several cities of Hellenic such as Acragas, Neapolis, Sybaris and Syracuse were mighty and influential. Cities like Ancona, Tarentum, Bari, Rhegium, Elea, Croton, Syessa, Epizephyrian Locri and a few others made up the Magna Graecia. Magna Graecia fell terribly after 282 BC when the Romans started expanding their empire. They were also susceptible to attacks from the barbarians. Roman Kingdom The accounts for the Roman Kingdom have come down from Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Livy and Plutarch mainly. They mention about Rome being ruled in succession by seven kings. According to the chronology that has been codified by Varro, a total of 243 years have been marked as their rule which means an average of 35 years for each king. The Gauls not only destroyed the lands and took lives in the Battle of Allia in 390 BC but also burnt the written records which could have been important proof about the kings who ruled the lands during those times. What remained of the records were either stolen or destroyed with time. The myths say that Rome was founded by Romulus and Remus who were twin brothers and grandsons of the Latin king Numitor of Alba Longa. Roman Republic The Roman Republic was established roughly around 509 BC when the rule of seven kings ended. By the 4th century Romans took over the Italian peninsula including the Etruria and the Greeks. The overpowering Romans had to face Carthage in the 3rd century. Although the Carthaginians were powerful they were unable to subdue the Romans and after the three Punic Wars Rome took over Sicily, North Africa and Hispania ultimately destroying Carthage. In the 2nd century BC they defeated the Empires of Seleucid and Macedonia and ruled over the entire Mediterranean. The conquests led to a fusion amongst the Greek and the Romans. The Romans who were rural now became stylish and lavish. The Romans had one big Empire and no enemies. The Roman Republic went through a phase of social turbulence and political emergency. It was Julius Caesar who brought two more men together to bring back stability in the Empire. Together with Pompey and Marcus Licinius Crassus, Caesar formed the first Triumvirate. After the death of Crassus in 53 BC the Triumvirate broke and Pompey and Caesar fought for power. Caesar took over Rome in 49 BC but his rule didn’t last long and was assassinated in the year 44 BC. Once again Rome was without a proper leader. Mark Antony took over the leadership of Rome but his affair with Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII caused a political upheavel. Caesar’s adopted son Octavian attacked Antony and crushed the Egyptian armies, both Cleopatra and Antony committed suicide. Octavian was now the only ruler of the Republic. Roman Empire Octavian was the first emperor of Rome in 27 BC. He was now called Augustus. It was under him that Rome prospered and was at its peak in terms of magnificence and glory. Although there was a republican, Augustus had complete control of the Empire. Roman literature grew fast and poets like Ovid, Vergil, Rufus, Maecenas and Horace made it possible for Latin Literature to flourish. This period is referred to as the Golden Age of Latin Literature. Epics such as ‘Aeneid’and other grand works of the poets became the gems of the period. Romans witnessed a 200 year peaceful and flourishing reign which is referred to as ‘Pax Romana’. Although Rome was a strong Empire they continued to extend their boundaries and some of their noted conquests comprise of – conquest of Britain, conquest of Dacia, conquest of Parthian Empire and also the conquest of Germanic tribes. The death of Emperor Theodosius I in 395 marked the end of the mighty Romans as after this Rome was divided into Eastern and Western Roman Empire. For some time Odoacer managed to keep the Western Empire united under his rule for some time but it was conquered soon. The Western part was pestered with Barbaric invasions and was taken over by several small barbarian kingdoms. Middle Ages Italy was distraught and shattered after it was conquered by Ostrogoths. The Gothic War led to diseases and famine in the country. This also led to the Lombards taking over the Italian peninsula. In 751 the Lombards captured Ravenna, overthrowing the Byzantine Empire. The Papacy in Rome was now face to face with a new power – the Lombards. They looked forth to the Franks to help them fight the Lombards. The Franks defeated the Lombards and the Papacy has the reigns of central Italy in their hands once again. They established Papal States. The Pope crowned Charlemagne the Holy Roman Emperor in Saint Peter’s Basilica. The successors of Charlemagne were weak and could not uphold the Empire together. Islam rose during these times in North Africa, Arabian Peninsula and Middle East and the southern parts were under constant attacks from Abbasid Caliphate and Umayyad Caliphate. The north was under the pressure of communes. Sicily was under the Islamic rule from 965 to 1061. As the millennium cam end so did the dark times for the Italian peninsula. The cities gained back their strength and popularity slowly and the Papacy was once again in control. Papacy always faced some or the other rebellions or conflicts throughout their rule. These problems were never ending and carried on till the Medieval Ages. In 1176, the Lombard League of communes finally defeated Frederick Barbarossa in the Battle of Legnano and established an autonomous rule. The southern part of the peninsula had a completely different history. The Normans bought and end to 600 year old history of Lombard and Byzantine possession of lands. It was the Normans who ended the Islamic rule in Sicily. The Norman Kingdom of Sicily was now ruled by Roger II. Roger II bought together all the smaller cities under one powerful rule. He united the southern peninsula into a large and strong kingdom. A Byzantine Emperor Manuel Komnenons tried to conquer back the lost lands but was unsuccessful. The Byzantines left Italy in the year 1158. The Norman Kingdom stood strong till 1194 before it was taken by the Staufen dynasty which was a German tribe. Sicily was under the influence of several such dynasties till the 19th century. Italy had a very different form of administration that ruled it for centuries. Both church and Imperial people had powers but both had different tracks and none of them intersected each other’s path. The cities and states prospered and gained fame and wealth through trade which led to development of art and culture. This automatically set in the environment for Renaissance. Feudalism did not exist anymore and the society was mostly based on trade and commerce with merchants who took care of these areas. Republic of Venice was especially known to be thriving with merchants. The Italian cities had an encouraging place between the East and West which is why it became the hub for banks, international trading etc. Venice, Florence and Milan were the leading cities and played an important role in the financial uplifting of Italy. There also emerged new types of economic and social organizations in the societies. Maritime was booming and Genoa, Venice, Amalfi and Pisa were among the leading cities where production of ships happened. The ships were extensively built for trading and the protection of the cities. Genoa and Venice has become Europe’s gateway for trade with the East. It also controlled trade with Islamic countries and Byzantine Empire. Florence established itself as an exceedingly systematized financial and commercial city and was Europe’s capital of banking, wool, jewellery and silk. Renaissance All of Europe was influenced by the thriving art, science, politics, literature and history of Italy. It was the most significant center for Renaissance. In the later part of Middle Ages the southern and central Italy, those were once throbbing cities of Magna Graecia and Roman Empire had now degraded and were quite low compared to the northern peninsula. Rome was ruined and Papacy has no control on law and order. The Papacy moved to Avignon in France. Sardinia, Sicily and Naples were under foreign control for some time. The cities of Italy extended their boundaries vastly and now completely controlled the Holy Roman Empire. The Black Death plagued the cities of Italy in 1348 and killed about one-third of the population. The phase when the cities recovered from the losses is when Renaissance and Humanism occurred and Italy took back its position as a leader in the Western civilization. It was rebirth of not only urbanization and the economy but also of the art and culture. The Italian Renaissance began first in Tuscany that was in the city of Florence. Spreading south, the Romans also were impressed by this and Rome was then rebuilt by the Popes of the Renaissance period. 15th century was when Renaissance was at its peak and it was then that it was plagued by foreign invasions. Renaissance began in Florence and moved to Lucca and Siena. Tuscan painting and architecture became model for all the cities in the central and northern parts of Italy. Science, Philosophy and Literature The beginning of Renaissance is seen by Petrarch who is known for the best sonnet sequence of Canzoniere. Another famous person is the author of Decameron, Boccaccio. Other poets who were famous poets and authors were Ludovico Ariosto, Matteo Maria Boiardo and Luigi Pulci. The scholars of the period studied the works of classical writers like Cicero, Vitruvius, Aristotle and Plato. Works of Hellenistic, Muslim and Greek writers were added to the library so the European scholars had material to study. Poliziano and Marsilio Ficino made several translations from Greek and Latin works. Barlamm of Seminara and Leonzio Pilato were scholar monks. Barlaam had taught Greek to Petrach and Boccaccio. Leonzio was a master translator and translated Homer’s work to the word. Baldassare Castiglione in his work ‘Book of the Courtier’ wrote down about his vision of a perfect lady and gentleman. Niccolo Machiavelli is known for laying down the foundation of modern political philosophy through is works in ‘The Prince’. The book was highly conflicting in nature as it did not match the Catholic doctrines of the time. Painting, Architecture and Sculpture Some of the renowned painters of the Renaissance period were Masaccio, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Giotto di Bondone, Michelangelo, Titian, Botticelli, Piero della Francesca and Leonardo da Vinci. Novelty, grandeur and magnificence are present in every work of architecture that belongs to the Renaissance period. St. Peter’s Basilicaand Tempio Malatestiano, Florence Cathedral are some of the works that live on to tell the tale of the brilliant works of architects such as Andrea Palladio, Brunelleschi, Bramante and Leone Alberti. Aldo Manuzio founded the Aldine Press that was famous for printing in the Italic style. The books printed here were pocket-sized and cheap. Unremitting Warfare Most powerful cities of Italy were all situated in the central and northern parts and among the strongest were Genoa, Milan, Venice, Florence, Siena, Verona, Pisa and Ferrara. Further up in the north of Italy was the continuous battle between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire for sovereignty. There were two groups into which every city had sided – Ghibellines and Guelfs. Wars among the states or cities were common but incursions from outside Italy were limited to sporadic raids of Holy Roman Emperors. Politics of Renaissance developed from this backdrop. From the 13th century the armies of the cities mainly constituted of legionnaires. The cities were rich and could afford forces. By the 15th century all the powerful cities amalgamated the smaller areas. Verona and Padua were taken by Venice, Pavia and Parma along with several smaller places was taken by Duchy of Milan and Pisa was taken over by Florence in 1406. Wars were a constant affair and the armies that fought for the lands were known as condottieri. The condottieri were soldiers from Switzerland and Germany and they were led by Italian captains. The condottieri did not want to risk their lives unnecessarily and the wars turned to cordons and manipulations and the battles became less. The condottieri played smart and continued the conflicts as this was their means of employment now. If not paid on time the mercenaries would turn on against their employers. There were many occasions when the mercenaries thought of overtaking the state because it was they on who the citizens were dependant on. Genoa, Venice and Pisa were at war at seas too. Several years of conflict finally declared Genoa as winner over Pisa. Venice was more powerful than Genoa as by the 15thcentury the Genoese started to decline and Venice ruled the seas. Milan, Florence and Venice dominated the lands and the Peace of Lodi written in 1454 finally bought a stop to the never ending wars. For the next forty years there was peace in the peninsula and Venice’s hold on the seas also saw peace till the 15th century. Italian Wars Italian Wars began in 1494 when France invaded northern Italy and there were several states that lost their independence. The main reason for the wars was dispute among dynasties between Kingdom of Naples and Duchy of Milan. This dispute slowly increased and gave fire to fiercer battles which included more states and alliances. Charles V led the French armies at Battle of Pavia in 1529 and War of the League of Cognac that lasted for four years – 1526 to 1530. Years of wars and battles could not decide a winner and ultimately with the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésisthe French relinquished its claims and instated a long Spanish domination over the peninsula. The Turks attacked the vicinity on Venice in 1499 and destroyed the neighbourhoods. It was attacked again in 1509 by the League of Cambrai. The German and Spanish troops sacked Rome on May 6, 1527 and destroyed the city except for the Papacy. Abbruzzi and Apulia were sacked in 1528. 1529 and 1530 saw the siege of Florence which brought about destruction to the neighbouring environs. Italy’s trade was ruined and most of the citizen’s wealth was confiscated. The population became half. Wool and silk industries that were once booming were devastated. Ransom that was paid to the invaders and taxes charged bared Italy completely. The recovery would be excruciating and long. Early Modern History The period of 17th century was an unbridled time that was marked by political upheaval and social unrest. This was because of the Spanish effect on the Italian peninsula, the power of Papacy, the reaction of Catholics against the Protestant reformation and Counter Reformation of Catholics. Although there were several accomplishments in the fields of arts and sciences which included the Baroque style of painting and discoveries made by Galileo in the field of astronomy there was an inclusive decline in the economy of Italy. Italy undoubtedly had some of the best explorers who led to several important discoveries. Amerigo Vespucci, Christopher Columbus and Giovanni da Verrazzano are the famous names in the list of discoverers. Despite their fame Venice and other Italian ports were no longer considered as important as the main hubs were now moved towards the West in the Atlantic. 30 years of war in which the Spanish were involved between 1618 to 1648, financed their armies by levying heavy taxes on the Italians and drained them dry. Their commerce and agriculture suffered tremendously. 1630, the Black Death returned and emaciated Milan and Venice. About 25% of the population was lost to the horrific plague. Another plague in 1656 claimed the lives of about 43% of the population in the Kingdom of Naples. The French Army of Italy led by Napoleon invaded Italy in 1796 and between 1797 and 1799 Napoleon had conquered almost all of Italy and called it French Revolution. He was based in Milan and set up new rules laws. The Roman Republic was formed and the Pope was sent to France. He formed the Kingdom of Italy in 1805 and declared himself King. Netherlands was made Batavian Republic by the French and Switzerland was now Helvetic Republic. All of them had to pay subsidies to Paris and also give military support to Napoleon. Administration and politics were bettered, Jewish ghettos were abolished, trade barriers were brought down and metric system was introduced. Piedmont and Belgium were now main parts of France. Napoleon later took Dalmatia and Veneto and added to his Kingdom. Ligurian Republic was also forced to merge with France. Slowly Kingdom of Naples, Marche and Tuscany were also made a part of Kingdom of Italy. The Europeans allied themselves and defeated Napoleon on April 6, 1814. He was sent on an exile to Elba. This resulted in the Congress of Vienna. Napoleon escaped and came back to France where Joachim Murat was in rule. He asked the Murat to convince the Italians to fight for him but the Italians were not persuaded to fight along his side. People rebelled against Murat and killed him. The Kingdom of Italy fell and many kings who were ruling before Napoleon came back to their thrones. States were now independent and now Italy was under a period of restoration. Unification of Italy - 1814 to 1861 The social and political process that unified the Italian peninsula is known as Risorgimento. Although there is no specific date that can be said about this unification but scholars say that it began with the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and ended with the Franco-Prussian War in 1871. There were many disputes among the leaders on when it came to unification. The unification started happening only after the revolutions of 1848. Italian nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi took the lead in the Italian drive for a united Italy. Italy made allies with France and Britain which also helped in the unification. The southern parts of Italy were considered to be backwards while the northern parts of Italy were much modernised. The people of South were not asked to give their views in important matters. The misunderstanding and gap led to civil wars which lasted for ten long years. By the time these revolts ended millions moved to South America, United States and more industrial cities such as Turin, Genoa and Milan. Liberal Italy - 1861 to 1922 King Victor Emmanuel II united most of the states of the peninsula. The main builders of unified Italy were the Chief Minister of Victor Emmanuel, Camillo Benso, Giuseppe Garibaldi and Count of Cavour. The Prussian Prime Minister offered Victor Emmanuel II to annex Venice that was controlled by Austria in exchange for Kingdom of Prussia. He agreed to the alliance and it led to the Third Italian War of Independence. Austria lost and Venice was added to Italy once again. The only thing that came in the way of unification was Rome. In 1870, Italy took over the Papal State, ultimately unifying Italy. The capital of Italy was moved from Florence to Rome. 19th century saw industrialisation at its boom and modernisation was speeding. Agostino Depretis took over Italy as the Prime Minister and implemented a new political idea which he called “Transformismo”. Transformismo was all about a cabinet that was to pick several reasonable and proficient politicians from a non-partisan outlook. But this was not so, Depretis pressurised the districts to vote for those who would favour him. He banned public meetings and all those who posed a threat were exiled and sent to remote islands. Some of the things of that can be counted as the positive side of him were that the elementary education was made free, arrest for incurring debt was stopped, and compulsory religious teachings were also stopped. He was forced to resign in 1877 however, he was back in 1881. He was once again thrown out in 1887 when the country faced continuous decline. World War I and Italy Initially Italy chose to remain quiet on taking sides but later on the London Pact made it declare war in Austro-Hungarian Empire. Italy was promised huge territories in exchange. Although the army was huge but it was poorly supplied and even more poorly led. The effectiveness of the war was pitiable and continued for three years. In 1916, Italy declared war on Germany and the Austrians who already had higher grounds got more privilege. Thousands of Italian soldiers were killed and more injured. The government had to bring back Italy to a higher level so it increased the labour wages and introduced collective bargaining and insurance schemes. The industries began to expand although the industrial wages matched the rising inflation, the farmers suffered. The residents in the rural areas were not happy. The Treaty of St. Germain announced Italy as victorious and awarded it. The Pact of London did not give Italy it’s said territories so the triumph was thought to be ‘mutilated’. Fascism in Italy Benito Mussolini was the founder of Fascist Party. He has participated in the World War I and was working with Socialist newspapers. He later broke off and established Fasci di Combattimento on March 23, 1919. Period of 1919 and 1920 was seen as a period of time of strikes, political instability, unemployment and economic crisis. The strikes were not only among the industries and factories but also among the peasants and farmers in the rural parts of Italy. The National Fascist Party managed to suppress all these rebellions and tried to bring peace and order in the country. In the October of 1922 Mussolini put forth his demands when there was a strike. He told the government to give the power to the Fascist party or Italy would have to face a coup. A group of 30,000 Fascists marched from Italy to Rome and said they would restore order in Italy. They asked the then ruling Prime Minister Luigi Facta to be replaced by Mussolini. Even though King Victor Emmanuel II had a much powerful army than the Fascists the political system was going through a crisis. He had to choose between the Fascists or the Marxist, he filtered down to Fascists. Once the Fascists were in power, Mussolini passed a law that stated two-thirds of the seats would be given to the party that would manage to get 25% of the vote. The 1924 election was not pleasant as the Fascists forcefully reached the goal of 25%. Benito Mussolini cleverly removed any obstacles that checked his power and finally in 1926 he passed a law that he was the only person who was responsible to the king. All the local governments were dissolved and officials were appointed while the mayors and councils were thrown out. In 1928 there were no parties except for the Fascists. The Latern Accord of 1929 was a treaty that recognised Pope as the authoritative person of Vatican City only. Vatican now had an independent status and became an important centre of the world. The treaty also stated that Catholicism was the only religion of the state. Other religions were tolerated as well. The bishops and priests were given salaries and church marriages were recognised. The religion was taught in schools now. The bishops promised their loyalty to the Italian state. The church was not obliged to follow Fascism and the differences were always there. However, the peace continued with these small differences too. Mussolini vowed to make Italy the biggest power in Europe and hold power in Mediterranean Sea. There was an equally powerful man who was Adolf Hitler. Mussolini and Hitler met in 1934. Mussolini wanted an assurance from him that the Nazi’s would not try and control Europe. Mussolini decided to attack Ethiopia in 1935 and Second Italo-Abyssinian War stemmed in the international isolation of Italy, becauseBritain and Francenow lost their trust in Benito Mussolini. World War II Germany’s invasion of Poland marked the World War II. Although he supported Hitler Benito Mussolini said that he was neutral. Mussolini along with the Fascists wanted to seize Middle East and Africa. He was warned by the King about the army not being efficient enough for a long term war and to fly the weapons and tanks. Mussolini took the advice and waited when France was attacked by Germany. France lost and it was now that Mussolini entered in the war. Mussolini expected to speedily seize Savoy, Nice, Corsica, and the African colonies of Tunisia and Algeria from the French, but Germany signed an armistice with Marshal Philippe Pétain instituting Vichy France, which reserved control on southern France and colonies. This resolution infuriated the Fascist government. Italy couldn’t stand any fronts and was losing continuously. By 1943, there were many battles they lost. On July 25, 1943 Mussolini was arrested by King Victor Emmanuel III’s order. The National Fascist Party was banned and a new prime Minister was appointed - General Pietro Badoglio. Mussolini was saved by a German commando in the Operation Eiche. The Fascists helped the Nazis in several ways but they finally lost. Mussolini was caught on April 25, 1945 and was executed for treason the next day, thus ending a long Fascist rule in Italy. Italian Republic On June 2, 1946 the republican won 54% of vote and this made Italy a republic. The House of Savoy were barred from entering Italy, this bar was lifted only in 2002. By 1950, Italy was stabilized and, in 1957, the economic and commerce developed soon and Italy was finally free from her troubles. Wars and revolts, battles and rebellions had left the country weak but it recovered soon. The country is now leading in global trade and commerce. Italy became one of the founding members of the European Economic Community, it is now the European Union. There have been many changes in the government after the Republic and today Italy is a thriving country. Italy has been marked by chapters of momentary long separation and union of futile kingdoms and intercommoned conflicts. With its 60 million residents the country now enjoys peace, have developed culture and high standards of living. It is now a prosperous country and has developed a high sense of growth compared to the early years of 20th century when the country was dependant on agriculture. Tourism has now prospered and its capital Rome happens to be in the list of tourist’s favourite place of visit. Not to forget the fashion hub – Milan. Milan has been the center of music, learning, art and culture since antiquity. It also happens to be the best place to taste the region’s top cuisines. Another important city located in the Ligurian Gulf is Genoa. One of the most important places which is also of great religious importance is the Vatican City. Vatican is always thronged by tourists throughout the year. The city of love, the city of canals, the city of bridges or the city of masks call it what you like– Venice is one of the most romantic escapades for couples. It is addressed as the “La Serenissima” and the “Queen of Adriatic”. Literature, art, culinary, music, religion and philosophy seem to thrive in Italy. The country has preserved its reminiscences from the wondrous painters and sculptors of ancient times. Italy has in store some rare and extraordinary gifts for the people of the world.

Contents

Orbit and classification

Paeonia is a non-family asteroid of the main belt's background population when applying the hierarchical clustering method to its proper orbital elements.[5] Based on osculating Keplerian orbital elements, the asteroid has also been classified as a member of the Themis family (602), a very large family of carbonaceous asteroids, named after 24 Themis.[4]

It orbits the Sun in the outer asteroid belt at a distance of 2.5–3.8 AU once every 5 years and 6 months (2,017 days; semi-major axis of 3.12 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.22 and an inclination of 2° with respect to the ecliptic.[3] The asteroid was first observed at the Simeiz Observatory in September 1925. The body's observation arc begins at Yerkes Observatory in November 1925, or one month after its official discovery observation at Heidelberg.[1]

Physical characteristics

In the Tholen classification, Paeonia is a common, carbonaceous C-type asteroid,[3][4] which agrees with the overall spectral type for the Themistians.[12]:23

Rotation period and pole

In December 1986, a rotational lightcurve of Paeonia was obtained from photometric observations by American physicist Frederick Pilcher at Illinois College. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of at least 6 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.5 magnitude (U=2-). Only a lower limit could be determined due to the short observation period. The observer noted that the brightness variation occurred within 2 hours or less.[9] In 2014, Pilcher revisited Paeonia at his Organ Mesa Observatory (G50) and measured a refined period of 7.9971 hours with an amplitude of 1.00 magnitude (U=n.a.), a strong indication for an elongated shape.[a]

A modeled lightcurve using photometric data from the Lowell Photometric Database was published in 2016. It gave an identical sidereal period of 7.9971 hours, as well as a spin axis at (155.0°, −50.0°) in ecliptic coordinates (λ, β).[10]

Diameter and albedo

According to the survey carried out by the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Paeonia measures between 18.63 and 23.092 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.048 and 0.09.[6][7][8] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes an albedo of 0.08 and calculates a diameter of 17.95 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 12.09.[4]

Naming

This minor planet was named after the genus of flowering plants, Paeonia, which comprises all perennial peony plants. The official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 101).[2]

Reinmuth's flowers

Due to his many discoveries, Karl Reinmuth submitted a large list of 66 newly named asteroids in the early 1930s. The list covered his discoveries with numbers between (1009) and (1200). This list also contained a sequence of 28 asteroids, starting with 1054 Forsytia, that were all named after plants, in particular flowering plants (also see list of minor planets named after animals and plants).[13]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Pilcher (2014) lightcurve plot of (1061) Paeonia period 7.9971±0.0001 hours with a brightness amplitude of 1.00 mag. Observation from 27 November to 29 December 2014. Quality code of n/a. List of Pilcher's lightcurve plots at the ASLC-website

References

  1. ^ a b c d "1061 Paeonia (1925 TB)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1061) Paeonia". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1061) Paeonia. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 91. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1062. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1061 Paeonia (1925 TB)" (2017-07-01 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i "LCDB Data for (1061) Paeonia". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  5. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  7. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; et al. (November 2011). "Main Belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE. I. Preliminary Albedos and Diameters". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 20. arXiv:1109.4096. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...68M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/68. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90.
  9. ^ a b Pilcher, F. (September 1987). "General Report of Position Observations by the ALPO Minor Planets Section for the Year 1986". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 14.: 23. Bibcode:1987MPBu...14...23P. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  10. ^ a b Durech, J.; Hanus, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Vanco, R. (March 2016). "Asteroid models from the Lowell photometric database". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 587: 6. arXiv:1601.02909. Bibcode:2016A&A...587A..48D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527573. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  11. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  12. ^ Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families. Asteroids IV. pp. 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628. Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. ISBN 9780816532131.
  13. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1054) Forsytia". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1054) Forsytia. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 90. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1055. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.

External links

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