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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

101 series
阪和線1978-19.jpg
JNR 6-car set at Asaka Station on the Hanwa Line, 1978
In service1957–2003
Replaced72 series
Constructed1957–1969
Entered serviceDecember 1957
Scrapped1987–2014
Number built1,535 vehicles
Number in serviceNone
Number preserved1 vehicle
Formation2, 3, 6, 7, 8 or 10 cars per trainset
Operator(s)JNR (1957–1987)
JR East (1987–2003)
JR-West (1987–1992)
Chichibu Railway (1986–2014)
Specifications
Car body constructionSteel
Car length20,000 mm (65 ft 7 in)
Width2,879 mm (9 ft 5.3 in)
Doors4 pairs per side
Maximum speed100 km/h (62 mph)
Traction systemResistor control
Acceleration2.0 km/h/s (7-car formation)
3.2 km/h/s (all motored cars)
Deceleration3.0 km/h/s (service, 7-car set)
3.5 km/h/s (emergency)
Electric system(s)1,500 V DC
Current collection methodoverhead catenary
BogiesDT21, DT21T, TR64
Track gauge1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)
A JR East 2-car Nambu Branchline set at Shitte Station in July 2002
A JR East 2-car Nambu Branchline set at Shitte Station in July 2002

The 101 series (101系, 101-kei) was a DC electric multiple unit (EMU) commuter train type introduced in 1957 by Japanese National Railways (JNR), and formerly operated by East Japan Railway Company (JR East) and West Japan Railway Company (JR-West). The last remaining trains were withdrawn in November 2003.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ WIC 2017 - 101 Series - Waste Water Basics
  • ✪ Gold Mine and Geology 101 Series, Episode 1, Mine Terms

Transcription

- I'm Allan Bryant. I work for Delhi Charter Township and if you don't know where that is, we're just on the south side of Lansing. I started working in wastewater in 1995 in a private industry that did metal finishing. If you know anything about wastewater and industrial wastewater, metal finishers are the worst. Anyway, I'm going to talk about most people don't like to think about, wastewater. What happens when you flush the toilet and where does it go when you take a bath or do your laundry, or wash dishes? Most people just want it to go away. They don't stop thinking about what happens after they do push that lever. So I'm going to help you understand a little about that today. Remember, everybody poops, [audience laughing] and if you didn't have a municipality or a septic tank at your house making it go away, you'd have to do it yourself. So I thought it would be good to start with some history. Back in Roman times in ancient Rome, they had what they called the Cloaca Maxima. That is Italian that literally translates to great sewer. In this particular illustration you see what was a public restroom. The building is obviously gone, but you see the trench there and in the next slide you can kind of see how it was devised. It was a public restroom for everybody, men, women, kids, all at the same time. The Romans were very good. They devised a series of aqueducts, providing fresh water to the city, and they also had now the Cloaca Maxima to take it all the way. Well, it just ran to the River Tiber. It didn't get any treatment. It just ran to the river where it went away. Back in the day, they used to say the solution to pollution is delusion. I guess you could say that when there were no regulatory [chuckles] authorities and there weren't as many people. But in a world of seven billion people, we have to think differently nowadays. In this illustration, you can see how they just use wastewater from the kitchen or maybe rain barrel to flush away the material and it went to this huge sewer out in the street and it ran to the river. So this is what it might have looked like as it entered a downstream vent as long as it's away from your house, right? And this is a raw sewage flowing to a surface water which we don't do that anymore, at least not in the United States. But after the fall of Rome, that whole process tended to fall by the wayside and as society tended to be a more rural area, towns and individual farms, most people just had some type of on-site system, whether it would be just burying it, or an outhouse. Dig a pit, build a little outhouse over it, and that's what your family used for a couple years maybe and then you'd relocate it and cover it up. But that couldn't last, obviously, as the population grew and people started to migrate towards the coastal lines. Cities began to grow. But unfortunate is almost as if they forgot what the Romans had done and all the technology they had because city planners did not put in any kind of sewage transports. So people, literally, just threw it out the window. You probably had something like this if you lived in town. If you lived in an urban area, you had a chamber pot which sat under your bed. Most people probably just had a wooden bucket and that's what you got to use when it was time and the way you dispose it was just open the window and dump it out. Now if you lived in town, that could be an issue for the people that were outside. And in Edinburg, Scotland, if you go there they'll tell you all kinds of stories about the Middle Ages when the people would shout, "Gardyloo!," before they... It means look out, here comes. The problem with that was it just ran down the streets. They were open sewers and that tended to bring rodents, rats and disease. So here's a photograph of what a sewer would look like, an open gutter that ran right down the middle of the street. Unfortunately, because they didn't understand the link between raw sewage and disease, often that method of disposal cost contamination of drinking water wells and there's lots of documentation of cholera outbreaks where thousands of people died. In London eventually they passed a law where you had to have a cesspit under your house or your building if you had a commercial building and that would fill up. I'm sure it didn't smell too great to know that the basement's full of sewage. But once in a while you'd have the nightmen come along with their wagons and containers and they would manually shovel out the cesspit in the bottom of your building. That did not solve the contamination of the wells. This illustration shows a cesspit that it can leach through the soil and get to your drinking water source, as well as contaminated surface water can leach down to the ground. So these cholera outbreaks were happening every few years and each time, thousands of people died. I mean you could literally walk into your neighborhood where maybe a drink and they still didn't realize that it was the well that was causing it. People are going to be dead people in the streets. I mean, it was that bad. It wasn't until Doctor John Snow, not Game of Thrones, Is it different John Snow, made the connection that cholera was caused and it was a water-born disease, not just cholera but lots of other things that was making people sick. In London, all those gutters tended to run down to the River Thames. It was really just a huge open sewer and you couldn't drink from it. God knows you wouldn't want to swim in it. Finally, in 58, there was a heat wave and the river level dropped, exposing some of the banks on the side where there was a lot of sewage, sludge and the smell was overwhelming. It was called The Great Stink and it got so bad that members of Parliament refused to assemble in the Parliament House because it was right on the banks of the river. There was such an outcry that they decided that they had to do something and a civil engineer that worked there at that time was appointed to figure it out. Well he already figured it out. He'd drawn up a plan a few years earlier for an interceptor sewer and he had gone before Parliament and they said, "No. "We're not going to pay for that." Four years later when there was a heat wave, they said, "Hurry up and get your sewer built." Took them about seven years to build this massive underground sewer. Now you have to remember at age 58, they didn't have precast pipe. They didn't have plastic pipe. The did have some clay pipe, but not big enough. So they literally had to open the streets and construct these huge interceptor sewers in place. In this particular shot, it may be hard to see, but you can see that those pipes are actually made of brick. So they built a form and used Portland cement and made the pipes out of brick. Because they used Portland cement, some of those sewers are still in use today. This is a map of the interceptor sewer that Joseph Bazalgette built. Hundred miles of interceptor sewer and 13,000 miles of smaller sewers that connected to this huge interceptor sewer. Now the problem with that is it just moved the sewage away from the city. It wasn't going to always [mumbles] true in the plan. It's still going to the River Thames, it's just downstream a little bit. It did solve the problem of the drinking water wells being contaminated, so public health improved. But over time, something had to be done other than that. Even before their interceptor sewers were built, all those solids that were handled, they did realize that there were some beneficial nutrients in that and some of it was land applied to farm fields. But it was very difficult to handle, transport. It's very wet. So that was a little bit of treatment, but not much. Eventually, there were experiments that started the trend towards chemical treatment. One of the first things that was ever done was lime stabilization. So you take a big take of sewage and you put lime in it and that changes the pH and allows some of these solids to settle out so you've got to a treated liquid. Even though it's not treatment, what we think of today, but it was better than anything they had at that point. So, chemical treatment was coming along. There were lots of different recipes and versions that were being developed and part of that they discovered that if they took sewage and allowed it to trickle through sand or eventually gravel, that they could get some treatment from that. It wouldn't be what you might think, is that gravel was just a filtration process. But what happened was, microorganisms began to grow on the sand and the gravel. As the sewage passed over it, it got some treatment, some biological treatment. This illustration shows what a modern trickle and filter would look like, but it's based on those sand gravel filters that were first discovered in the late 1800s. And what came out of that, those microorganisms that were part of those trickling filters where adapted and were used in what we call activated sludge tanks. So they took sewage in a big tank and they pumped air to it because those microorganisms are aerobic organisms, they need air to reproduce and chew on that wastewater sludge, without getting too technical. But they were able to achieve complete nitrification in a couple of weeks. Well, a couple of weeks is too long [chuckles]. Back then, it might've been okay. We couldn't take a couple of weeks and do nitrification today. So activated sludge is a common biological treatment process today in the United States, and particularly in Michigan. What happened is that was a method of treatment for many years and then we got to 1972. The EPA was established and the Clean Water Act was established. It was part of a water pollution permit system that was already in place, but they amended it in 1972 and it became known as the Clean Water Act. What the Clean Water Act did was it gave the EPA the ability to make it illegal or unlawful to discharge any pollutant to a surface water of the United States without a permit. So today, if you are a company making widgets or a municipality with a wastewater treatment plant, you can't discharge to a river, a lake, a stream, or a water body like that without first getting a permit from the state of Michigan, Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. That permit will tell you specifically what you can discharge to your water body and the permit is based on the quality of that receiving water. So it's different for every person, depending on where you're discharging. But it's going to be things like pH, heavy metals, stuff like that. And that brings us to do today. How do we do it today? Does anybody recognize this plant? This is the Detroit water and sewage plant. Somebody asked the first time I went through this what their treatment volume was and I looked it up. It's 650 million gallons [chuckles] a day. So that's a huge plant, one of the largest plants in the United States, obviously. So what happens when you flush your toilet or pull the plug out of your bathtub? The water flaws by gravity from your house, through your lead, to the street, and then it continues to flow by gravity and the whole series of pipes that come together eventually into what we call an interceptor sewer. But it flows by gravity most of the way. Here's what a cross-cut section might look like. You see here not just a sanitary sewer from the house, but also a storm sewer that might collect from catch basins in the street to divert storm water away to a river. Now thing to keep in mind is that storm water that goes into a catch basin doesn't get any treatment. It flows directly to a water body, so that's why it's important never to put oil or any kind of litter or something like that down a catch basin. A lot of communities have combined systems. So if there's a high wet weather event that can influence flow to the wastewater treatment plant, not necessarily a good thing, but there's efforts underway to separate those communities. So the wastewater is going to flow by gravity, almost all the way, but never in many communities could have complete out-of-gravity flow system. So what would have to happen is there has to be a pump station at some point to lift it up to a higher elevation so it could flow by gravity some more. These stations have to have redundancy. They can't just have one pump in there, they have to have at least two because what if the first one fails? Then you have a backups in the line and it fills up somebody's basement with sewage. So you can't do that. Pump stations and collection pipes have to be maintained. You have to have specialized equipment. This is a vactor truck. So a lot of communities will either own trucks like this or they'll hire other outside contractors to do this for them. But the are really responsible for keeping this clean. This is a router jet, so these guys are putting the router down in it and cleaning out the pipe, bringing all the stuff that might be accumulated in the pipe back to be sucked up by the vactor truck. And then we have specialized cameras, video cameras we can put down in the sewer pipe. Lots of very old systems out there. So it's hard to tell how old the pipe is. What's it made of? There might be very poor records for all the old systems. So a lot of times they get cracked, roots get in there. There's a lot of nutrients following through. So once roots get going, they take off. This is another version of the camera that can be used for the bigger pipes. They can do inspections that way and know where you prioritize where you're going to have to go in and maybe replace pipe or do some repair. That's what inside of a pipe might look like as it's moving along. So all these pipes eventually make it to a wastewater treatment plant and what happens then? I'm going to talk a little bit now about what happens at a wastewater treatment plant. Very rarely is it just one stage or some really small communities that might have a pond or something like that. But most larger communities are going to have a wastewater treatment where it has a series of treatment processes that you move through. I'm going to talk about that right now. They always have primary treatment. One of the first things you do in primary treatment is you screen out the trash because you'd be surprised at what comes through our wastewater treatment plant. That's going to be candy wrappers, plastic, condoms, feminine hygiene products, everything has to be taken out that you can get on a screen like this. That gets collected and it goes to a landfill. And then the water flows onto the next tank and we have to take out the grit. Grits going to be inorganic material like sand and gravel, stuff that can be very abrasive to downstream pumps and valves and processes. So we got to get that out of there. That also get separated, goes to a landfill. And then we flow into what we call primary clarifier. This is a big tank, flow slows down, all the grease that people dump down their drains at home floats to the top. Stop doing that, by the way. It comes from restaurants too, but all the raw sewage sludge sinks to the bottom and that gets pumped off for treatment separately and the water continues to flow to the next atrium. That's really all for primary treatment. Didn't you use any chemicals, didn't use any magic, it was just physical treatment. We screened, we filtered, and we used gravity. We try to use gravity as [chuckles] much as possible to save money. The next stage of treatment is secondary treatment. This is a biological process. I talked a little bit about the trickling filters and the aeration tanks. It's tricky because when you have a wastewater treatment plant that is a living organism, if to be careful about toxins that can come in from somewhere out of the collection system that might kill all those organisms. So most treatment plants that might have influence like that have industrial pre-treatment programs that kind of watch make sure that nobody's dumping stuff that they shouldn't that would kill those. But this is what some of the organism might look like. So there is bacteria. There's lots of different kinds of bacteria that are aerobic organisms and they help us nitrify, nitrates, and take care of the ammonia part and as I said, they're aerobic organisms so they require a lot of oxygen. An activated sludge plant will have blowers like this. This particular plant has four of these blowers, but I've seen plans that have 15 or 20 of these blowers. It just depends on how big your process is. Most wastewater treatment plants that use activated sludge their biggest cost is in the running of these blowers. These blowers have to run 24/7. If they go down, you might have a couple hours to save the microorganisms before they start dying. But you really got to make sure those keep running, and so wastewater treatment plants always have generators on standby. So that's the aeration tank there. It flows into a secondary clarifier like this. That sludge goes to the bottom and goes off to sludge handling. And then the last stage would be disinfection because we've cleaned up the water now, but it still has pathogens present. So we couldn't discharge that to a lake or stream that could make somebody sick, so you have to disinfect. Most plants today use strong bleach solution, sodium hyprochlorite. A lot of plants used to use chlorine gas, don't use that anymore. Or you can do something like this. This is a UV disinfection, so the water actually passes through a tank where all these UV lights are placed. It can be tricky because turbidity can affect the effectiveness. There's a lot of maintenance in keeping those lenses clean and the lights, so it's a trade-off. It just depends on what you're able to do and how well you're able to get rid of that turbidity. And then hopefully you're discharging to a surface water a high-quality effluent. That means all your NPDS permit limits. I do want to talk a little bit about the solids handling that we took out of the primary clarifiers from the secondary clarifiers. So these are biosolids or sewage sludge. This particular plant I'm talking about here is where I work. We produce a Grade A biosolid because these digesters heat the sludge to a temperature and hold it for a specific amount of time in order to get total pathogen destruction. So all the nasty creepy crawlies that might hurt you are dead and then there's still a lot of beneficial nutrients in that sludge. So we are able to land apply it for its nutrient value, phosphorus and nitrogen, obviously. Our plan is our plan is to one day be able to dry that sludge and then it could be used for various other possibilities. It can be used as an alternative fuel source in a coal burning fire plant, or a renewable source, or it can be sold to the general public for use on their gardens. Any questions? [audience clapping]

Contents

History

The prototype 101 series set was delivered in June 1957, as a 10-car (4+6-car) set classified as 90 series with all cars motored. Cab cars were numbered MoHa 90500 to 90503, and the intermediate cars were numbered MoHa 90000 to 90005. Production sets were delivered from March 1958, differing visually from the prototype in having exposed rain gutters along the top of each car. The 90 series was reclassified as 101 series from 1959, with the prototype set cars numbered in the 900 subseries. The prototype set was modified in 1962 to bring it up to production set standards.[1]

Lines used

101 series trains operated on the following lines.

JR East 3-car Tsurumi Line set at Musashi-Shiraishi Station, circa December 1990
JR East 3-car Tsurumi Line set at Musashi-Shiraishi Station, circa December 1990

Tokyo Area

Osaka Area

Private operators

A number of former 101 series trains were sold to the private railway operator Chichibu Railway in Saitama Prefecture in 1986, where they operated as 3-car 1000 series sets until March 2014.

Preserved examples

KuMoHa 101-902 at Tokyo General Rolling Stock Center, August 2005
KuMoHa 101-902 at Tokyo General Rolling Stock Center, August 2005

KuMoHa 101-902 is preserved at The Railway Museum in Saitama, previously preserved at JR East's Tokyo General Rolling Stock Center.[2]

References

  • JR全車輛ハンドブック'93 [JR Rolling Stock Handbook 1993]. Japan: Neko Publishing. 1993.
  • JR電車編成表 '98夏号 [JR EMU Formations - Summer 1998]. Japan: JRR. July 1998. ISBN 978-4-88283-029-0.
  1. ^ プロトタイプの世界 - Prototype World. Japan: Kōtsū Shimbunsha. December 2005. OCLC 170056962.
  2. ^ Railway Museum exhibit details Archived 6 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 28 April 2009. (in Japanese)

External links

This page was last edited on 3 September 2019, at 18:22
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