To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Émile Ollivier ministry

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

the Ollivier cabinet
Photograph by Appert of the Ollivier Ministry with Napoléon III (seated, centre). From left to right: Segris [fr], Buffet, Rigault de Genouilly, Le Bœuf, Vaillant, Daru, Chevandier de Valdrome [fr], Louvet [fr], Émile Ollivier, Talhouët-Roy, Esquirou de Parieu and Richard [fr]

The Émile Ollivier ministry was the penultimate government of the Second French Empire. Led by Émile Ollivier, a republican opponent of the Empire, it was initially composed of moderate bonapartists and orléanists. However following the constitutional referendum on 8 May[1] liberal members of the cabinet resigned and were replaced with politicians of a more authoritarian type.[2][3] It lasted from 2 January 1870 until 10 August 1870, on the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, when it was replaced by the Cousin-Montauban ministry.[4] It was often referred to at the time as the Ministry of 2 January (French: ministère du 2 janvier).

Composition

Head of government (de facto)

Minister of Justice and Religious Affairs

Émile Ollivier
President of the Council of State Félix Esquirou de Parieu[5]
Minister of War Edmond Le Bœuf until 20 July 1870[6]

Pierre Charles Dejean from 20 July 1870[7]

Minister of Agriculture and Trade Charles Louvet [fr][8]
Minister of Public Works Auguste de Talhouët-Roy until 15 May 1870[9]
Ignace Plichon until 10 August 1870[10]
Minister of Education Alexis Segris [fr] until 14 April 1870[11]

Maurice Richard [fr] (interim) until 15 May 1870[12]

Jacques Mège [fr] from 15 May 1870[13]

Minister of the Navy and Colonies Charles Rigault de Genouilly[14]
Minister of Foreign Affairs Napoléon Daru until 14 April 1870[15]

Émile Ollivier (ínterim) until 15 May 1870

Agénor de Gramont from 15 May 1870[16]

Ministre of Finance Louis Buffet until 14 April 1870[17]

Alexis Segris [fr] from 14 April 1870[11]

Minister of the Interior Eugène Chevandier de Valdrome [fr][18]
Minister of the Arts (from 15 May 1870) Maurice Richard [fr] [12]
Minister of the Imperial Household Jean-Baptiste Philibert Vaillant[19]

References

  1. ^ Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p.673 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  2. ^ Émile Zola (2018). His Excellency Eugène Rougon. Oxford University Press. p. 342. ISBN 978-0-19-874825-0.
  3. ^ David Wetzel (2003). A Duel of Giants: Bismarck, Napoleon III, and the Origins of the Franco-Prussian War. Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-299-17494-1.
  4. ^ Michael Howard (2013-05-13). The Franco-Prussian War: The German Invasion of France 1870–1871. Routledge. p. 86. ISBN 1-136-75306-0.
  5. ^ Robert, Alphonse; Cougny, Gaston. "Félix, Marie, Louis, Pierre Esquirou de Parieu". assemblee-nationale.fr. French National Assembly. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  6. ^ "LEBOEUF Edmond". senat.fr. French Senate. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  7. ^ Rachel Chrastil (2014-04-08). The Siege of Strasbourg. Harvard University Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-674-41628-4.
  8. ^ Robert, Alphonse; Cougny, Gaston. "Charles Louvet". assemblee-nationale.fr. French National Assembly. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  9. ^ Robert, Alphonse; Cougny, Gaston. "Auguste, Elisabeth, Joseph Bonamour de Talhouët-Roy". assemblee-nationale.fr. French National Assembly. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  10. ^ Robert, Alphonse; Cougny, Gaston. "Ignace, Charles Plichon". assemblee-nationale.fr. French National Assembly. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  11. ^ a b Robert, Adolphe; Cougny, Gaston. "Emile, Alexis Segris". assemblee-nationale.fr. French National Assembly. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  12. ^ a b Robert, Adolphe; Cougny, Gaston. "Maurice, Louis Richard". assemblee-nationale.fr. French National Assembly. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  13. ^ Robert, Adolphe; Cougny, Gaston. "Philippe, Jacques Mège". assemblee-nationale.fr. French National Assembly. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  14. ^ "RIGAULT DE GENOUILLY Charles". senat.fr. French Senate. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  15. ^ Robert, Alphonse; Cougny, Gaston. "Napoleon Daru". assemblee-nationale.fr. French National Assembly. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  16. ^ Gramont, Antoine Agénor Alfred, Duc de . Encyclopedia Britannica. 1911 – via Wikisource.
  17. ^ Buffet, Louis Joseph . Encyclopedia Britannica. 1911 – via Wikisource.
  18. ^ Robert, Alphonse; Cougny, Gaston. "Eugène, Jean-Pierre, Napoléon Chevandier de Valdrôme". assemblee-nationale.fr. French National Assembly. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  19. ^ "VAILLANT Jean-Baptiste-Philibert". Senat.fr. French Senate. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
This page was last edited on 11 November 2020, at 18:48
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.